Journal Articles, by Author, A to C


Ahmed, M. B. “High-risk adolescents and Satanic cults.” Tex Med 87(10) 1991 pp.74-6.
During the last decade the number of teenagers involved in violent behavior and drug abuse increased significantly. Some of these adolescents were involved in Satanic cult activities. Although sensationalism is created by isolated incidents like the Matamoros murders and Geraldo’s media coverage of Satanism, our observation, in a private psychiatric hospital, reveals that in fact adolescents involved in Satanic cults do not differ from other adolescents admitted with a variety of other problems. Psychodynamic factors, family dynamics, and treatment strategies for management of adolescents who are involved in Satanic cult activities are discussed.

Aldridge, Morris Ray. “A skeptical reflection on the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder.” Irish J Psychological Medicine 11(3) pp.126-9.
Presents a number of grounds on which it seems reasonable to base a skeptical view of the validity of multiple personality disorder MPD as a naturally occurring diagnostic entity. MPD is being diagnosed with increasing frequency, especially in North America. Soaring estimates of its current prevalence are accompanied by considerable controversy and heated debate. Seven reasons for skepticism from a therapist viewpoint are reviewed: epidemiological differences, iatrogenic influences, countertransference, number of personalities, diagnostic skills, changing definitions of MPD, mystique, and ritual Satanic abuse. Concern is expressed for patients as to whether current treatment for and acceptance of MPD alleviates or exacerbates their symptomatology.

Alexander, David. “Trouble on the antichrist beat. (Satanism in the press).” The Quill 78(4) 1990, p.12.
KEY WORDS: Satanism–Analysis: Cults–Public opinion.

Alexander, David.  “Still giving the devil more than his due.” Humanist 51(5) Sept/Oct 1991 pp.22-42.

Allen, Carole and Metoyer, Pat. “Crimes of the Occult.” Police, Feb. 1987 22-25.
Focuses on adolescent “dabblers” and ritualistic homicides, with reference to ritual child abuse. Talks about practices and criminal activities of various cults. Offers clues and signs of occult criminal activity to law enforcement personnel.

American Academy of Pediatrics. “Guidelines for the evaluation of sexual abuse of children.”  Pediatrics 87(2) 1991 pp.237-43.
Guidelines for pediatricians when child sexual abuse is suspected.

Anthony, Dick.  “Law, social science and the ‘brainwashing’ exception to the First Amendment.”  Behavioral Sciences and the Law 10(1) 1992 pp.5-29.
Discusses the distinction between “brainwashing” as a coercive process that creates involuntariness (IS) and other less coercive processes (R. Delgado, 1977). Litigation in the “cult wars” has shifted from “deprogramming” cases to civil suits by ex-converts based on “brainwashing” claims, and to criminal defenses claiming incapacity due to cultic brainwashing. Early cases were decided on the basis of First Amendment derivations barring judicial inquiries into conversion processes and religious authenticity. In 1988 the California Supreme Court carved out an exception to be applied where “coercive persuasion” is combined with concealment of a group’s identity (Molko and Leal v. Holy Spirit Association. Key questions must be resolved before brainwashing theories can contribute to litigation involving religious groups. These questions relate to broader issues involving IS and the point beyond which indoctrination becomes incapacitating.

Appelbaum, Paul S. “Law and psychiatry: Third-party suits against therapists in recovered-memory cases.” Psychiatric Services 2001 52(1) pp.27-8.
There is still no definitive case law on whether people accused of sexual or ritual abuse may sue a therapist.              
To minimize risk, therapists should abide by professional guidelines, abide by avoid techniques aimed explicitly at recovery of memories, remember that memories cannot be assumed to be true without independent confirmation, realize that directing patients to take actions against alleged abusers, including confrontation, cessation of contact, and initiation of civil or criminal are high-risk.

Arnold, Clinton E.  “Dealing with ‘murky monsters and dastardly demons:’ A response to Underwager and Wakefield.” Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.288-91.

Arnold, Clinton E. “Toothless tiger or roaring lion? A rejoinder to Underwager and Wakefield.”  Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.295-8.


Bader, Christopher D. “Supernatural support groups: Who are the UFO abductees and ritual-abuse survivors?” J Scientific Study of Religion 42(4) Dec 2003 pp.669-78.

Badsha, Omar. “Imperial ghetto: People and rituals in a South African ghetto.” 6(4) Dec 2000 pp.511-35.

Barry, R. J. (1987) “Satanism: The law enforcement response.” National Sheriff February/March 1987 pp.39-42.

Baumeister, Roy F., and Sommer, Kristin L. “Patterns in the bizarre: Common themes in Satanic ritual abuse, sexual masochism, UFO abductions, factitious illness, and extreme love.” J Social and Clinical Psychology 16(2) 1997.

Bell, Steve.  “Horns of a dilemma.” Care Weekly June 30 1994.
British author argues that the well being of sexually abused children is paramount, as opposed to proving or disproving the existence of Satanic ritual abuse.

Belitz, Jerald. “Satanism as a response to abuse: The dynamics and treatment of Satanic involvement in male youths, Adolescence, 27(108) 1992 pp.855-72.
Male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into Satanic cults. Families that are abusive, devalue or invalidate the abused child’s feelings, blame the child for the family’s’ problems, and view the world in rigidly moralistic terms create environments in which the youths are likely to identify with the aggressor and label themselves as evil. These youths may use Satanic involvement as a means of legitimizing their experience and differentiating from a negatively enmeshed and/or abusive family system. In this paper, the etiological factors and treatment approaches of 10 hospitalized boys who had voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group Satanic activities during their adolescence are described, and 2 case illustrations are given.

Belitz, Jerald. “Satanism as a response to abuse: The dynamics and treatment of Satanic involvement in male youths.” Family Therapy 21(1) 1994 pp.81-98.
Examined Satanic involvement among 10 boys (aged 12–17 yrs) in inpatient psychiatric treatment and presented a theoretical context for understanding and treating these adolescents. Ss who had been admitted over a 3-yr. period reported repeated voluntary involvement in group Satanic activities, starting in adolescence or preadolescence. Ss had been physically and/or sexually abused, in many cases by 1 or both parent figures. The etiological’ factors of Ss are described, and 2 case illustrations are provided. Case 1 was a 15-yr.-old White boy who was admitted because he planned to kill 13 people, including himself. Case 2 was a 17-yr.-old Hispanic boy who was admitted because of suicidal behavior, depression, aggressive outbursts, and polysubstance abuse. Satanic cults offered membership in a group where there was no rejection. Since the abuse had enraged and betrayed Ss, the cults became a welcome haven.

Benjamin, Lynn R. and Benjamin, Robert. “A group for partners and parents of MPD clients: II. Themes and responses.” Dissociation 7(2) 1994 pp.104-11.
Extends work by L. R. Benjamin and R. Benjamin (see PA  82:22614) on the format and process of an adjunctive group for partners and parents of multiple personality disorder (MPD) clients. Common themes that have emerged in the group were examined. These themes include the diagnosis, anger, the sense and fear of loss, self-caring and setting limits, how much to trust the MPD client, the struggle to avoid becoming a ““therapist” family member, how to deal with the outside world, marital and sexual issues, existential and spiritual issues, and changes in the relationship at recovery. Therapist responses to the issues of self-care and exploitation, sexual dysfunction, sadistic ritual abuse, the repressed memory controversy, criticism of the MPD client’s therapist, and parenting are also presented.

Benningfield, M. F. “The use of hypnosis in the treatment of dissociative patients.” Child Sexual Abuse 12 1992 pp.17-31.

Bernet, W. and Chang, D. K. “The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.” J Forensic Sci 42(1) 1997 pp.32-8.
Psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse. The objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. METHOD: The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudo ritualistic abuse, activities by organized Satanic groups, repetitive psycho pathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

Bibby, Peter. “Breaking the web.” Social Work Today Oct. 3, 1991 pp.17-9.
British social worker outlines methods used by child abuse rings to entrap children and offers suggestions for breaking the abusers’ hold on their victims.

Bibby, Peter.  “Satanic abuse as panto.” Professional Social Work Aug. 4 1994.
British author argues that the debate on Satanic ritual abuse is in danger of degenerating into a pantomime.

Bloch, E. L. “Post-traumatic stress disorder: Therapeutic approach-avoidance: An illustrative case.” Psychotherapy 28(1) 1991 pp.62-7.

Bloom, Sandra L. “Hearing the survivor’s voice: Sundering the wall of denial.” Psychohistory 21(4) 1994 pp.461-77.
Draws parallels between the world’s denial of the Holocaust and denial of ritual abuse, with commentary on the “false memory syndrome.”

Borden, Tree A, and LaTerz, Jean D. ”Mother/daughter incest and ritual abuse: The ultimate taboos.” Treating Abuse Today 3(4) 1993 pp.5-8.
Clinical observations and preliminary data collection have shown that mother/daughter incest occurs with greater frequency and severity than previously noted.

Boston, G. Robert, “Santeria: Animal sacrifice religion comes out of the shadows.” Church and State 41(1) 1988 pp.10-1.

Bottoms, Bette L., Shaver, Philip R., and Goodman, Gail. “Understanding and responding to religious material in the therapy of multiple personality disorder.” Dissociation 2 1991 pp.231-8.
Offers a review of the literature regarding the religious lives of MPD patients, along with a detailing of their common religious concerns, and pitfalls for therapists in dealing with these issues.

Bottoms, Bette L., Shaver, Phillip R. and Goodman, Gail S. “An analysis of ritualistic and religion-related child abuse allegations.” Law and Human Behavior  20 (1)1996 pp.1-34.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: A stratified random sample survey of clinical members of the American Psychological Association was conducted to determine the number and nature of cases involving alleged ritualistic and religion-related child abuse, whether reported directly by children or retrospectively by adults. Results indicated that only a minority of clinical psychologists have encountered ritual cases, but of those, the vast majority believe their clients’ claims. Even so, the purported evidence for the allegations, especially in cases reported by adults claiming to have suffered the abuse during childhood, is questionable. Most clients who allege ritual abuse are diagnosed as having multiple personality disorder or PTSD, two increasingly popular, but controversial, psychological diagnoses. Clinical and legal implications are discussed and a future research agenda is urged.

Bottoms, Bette L., and Davis, Suzanne L. “The creation of Satanic ritual abuse.” J Social and Clinical Psychology 16(2) 1997.

Bottoms, Bette L., Diviak, K. R. and Davis, S. L. Jurors’ reactions to Satanic ritual abuse allegations.” Child Abuse and Neglect 21(9) 1997 pp.845-59.
Some of the most highly publicized child sexual abuse trials of this century have involved bizarre allegations of Satanic ritual abuse, yet little is known about jurors’ reactions to ritual abuse claims. We investigated how jurors’ judgments of defendant guilt and witness credibility are affected by the presence or absence of Satanic ritual abuse allegations. Two hundred forty-three mock jurors rendered judgments about a case involving childhood sexual abuse allegations made by either a 5-year-old child or a 30-year-old adult survivor. The presence or absence of Satanic ritual abuse allegations was varied between subjects. Jurors’ religiosity was measured. Although jurors were significantly less likely to believe the Satanic ritual allegations than other case details, they were as likely to vote guilty and to believe the victim in Satanic as in non-Satanic cases. Victim age had no significant effect on mock jurors’ judgments, but there were marked individual differences in decisions: When the allegations involved Satanic ritual abuse, religious jurors were more likely than less religious jurors to believe the victim. Further, across all conditions, women made more pro-victim judgments than did men. Our findings suggest that highly bizarre details may be discounted by jurors (particularly less religious jurors), but that jurors may set aside their skepticism of Satanic ritual details and make judgments about child sexual abuse cases based on their perceptions of the credibility of non-Satanic allegations of harm. Whether or not this is an accurate approach to decision-making in these cases remains an empirical question.

Bourget, Dominique, “Satanism in a psychiatric adolescent population.” Can J Psychiatry 33(3) 1988 pp.197-202.
In a university affiliated adolescent psychiatric facility, providing approximately 250 consultations per year, an unexpectedly high prevalence of preoccupation with Satanism was found in referred adolescents. Information about 8 cases is presented to identify common characteristics among Ss. Initially, a link between the marginal cult belief and general maladjustment was hypothesized, specifically delinquent behavior. Findings confirm this trend and show a significant impairment in the social adjustment of these Ss. A high prevalence of family disruption and parental abuse as well as a wide range of psychiatric symptoms were also found in the Ss. (French abstract)

Bowman, E. S., Coons, P.M., Jones, R. S., and Oldstrom, M. “Religious psychodynamics in multiple personalities: Suggestions for treatment.” Am J Psychotherapy 41 1987 pp.542-54.
A study of God images, personality splits and the religious lives of seven female MPD patients, with a description of how different God images occur in primary and secondary personalities.

Bowman, E.S. “Understanding and Responding to Religious Material in the Therapy of Multiple Personality Disorder.” Dissociation, 2 1989 pp.231-38.
Offers a review of the literature regarding the religious lives of MPD patients, along with a detailing of their common religious concerns, and pitfalls for therapists in dealing with these issues.

Brabo, Lisa. “Satanic ritual abuse: Nothing supernatural about it.” NCADV Voice, Special Edition: “Ritual Abuse.” 1994.
An overview of four levels of Satanic practice and the techniques employed by cults.

Bradway, B. “Ritual Sexual Abuse.” School Intervention Report 7(1) Fall 1993 pp.1-10.
Ritual sexual abuse of children causes severe psychological effects, but the prevalence of such abuse is difficult to estimate because many child victims and adult survivors do not publicly acknowledge they were abused.  Children who are sexually abused may be subjected to emotional and physical sadism. The abuse may occur in the home or in other settings such as day care centers, and ritual sexual abuse may have religious overtones. Ritual sexual abuse cases are especially difficult to prosecute. If the abuse occurs in a group situation, the sheer magnitude of the cases creates problems. In addition, the manner in which children perceive and remember reality makes it easy for offenders to commit acts that confuse and intimidate them. Ritual sexual abuse has been categorized according to three types: cult-based ritual abuse when sexual abuse is used to induce a mystical or religious experience in the abuser; pseudo-ritual abuse to exploit children through psychological, sadistic intimidation and to inhibit their disclosure of abuse; and psychopathological ritual abuse stemming from an obsessive, sadistic individual rather than from a group concerned with religious or other experiences.  Many sexual abuse victims indicate that they may not be believed if they report abuse, that they may be labeled as crazy, and that the offender may retaliate against them.  Further, survivors of ritual sexual abuse often develop multiple personality disorders. Other psychological symptoms of child victims and adult survivors include suicidal or homicidal urges, eating disorders, substance abuse, and low self-esteem. Studies show that ritual sexual abuse is often initiated by family members and sometimes by day care providers. The role of therapists in helping ritual sexual abuse survivors is discussed, as well as difficulties associated with child testimony in court.

Braun, Bennett G. “Towards a theory of MPD and other dissociative phenomena.” Psychiatry Clinical N Am 7(1) 1984 pp.71-193.

Braun, Bennett G.  ”Psychotherapy of the survivor of incest with a dissociative disorder.” Psychiatric Clinics N Am, 12(2) June 1989 pp.307-24.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The treatment of the survivor of incest who suffers from a dissociative disorder is probably somewhat more difficult than that of other survivors of incest because for these others the material is more readily available. Also the patient with DD was probably more severely abused or the dissociative defense would not have been needed. This too makes therapy difficult, especially in that most necessary step: the development of trust and rapport. Despite these problems, there is a very good chance for a successful therapy that will bring the dissociated material back into the main stream of consciousness with a “here and now” appropriate perspective. This can be accomplished through proper diagnosis, good theoretics grounding, and therapy including psychotherapy with appropriate limit setting and the judicious use of medication.  This article presents a summary of the BASK model of dissociation and two other models and gives ideas on how these models may be applied to the understanding of the etiology of dissociative disorders and their treatment. Case examples are used to illustrate successful treatment. Although treatment of incest survivors with dissociative disorders is difficult, success can be anticipated, and the rewards to the patient and the satisfaction for the therapist are great.

Braun, B. G., Sachs, R. G., Young, W. C., Watkins, R. T. (1991).   “Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood:  A clinical syndrome.  Report of 37 Cases.”  Child abuse and neglect 15.

Brenner, Ira. (1994). “A twentieth-century demonologic neurosis?” J Psychohistory 21(4) p.4.

Briere, J. and Runtz, M. “Symptomology associated with childhood sexual victimization in a non-clinical adult sample.” Child Abuse and Neglect 12 1988 pp.51-9.

Briere, J. Sachs, R. G., Young, W. C. and Watkins, R. T.” Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.” Child Abuse and Neglect 1991.

Bross, Donald C. “Assumptions about child sexual abuse allegations at or about the time of divorce: A commentary.” Child Sexual Abuse 1(2) 2, 1992 pp. 115-6
Legal expert responds to the controversy surrounding allegations of child sexual abuse that arise in the context of divorce/custody actions.

Brown, Dee. “Domestic violence: The underside of cult ritual.” NCADV Voice, Special Edition: “Ritual Abuse.” 1994.
Examines the dynamics of ritual child abuse and its relationship to domestic violence and

Bruce, Alistair J., “Orkney: A practitioner’s view. (Satanic child abuse) (Great Britain),” Solicitors J 135(14) 1991 p.432.

Bryer, J. B., Nelson, B. A., Miller, J. B. and Krol, P. A. “Childhood sexual and physical abuse as factors in adult psychiatric illness.” Am J Psychiatry 144 1987 pp.1426-30.

Bucky, Steven F. “The relationship between training of mental health professionals and the reporting of ritual abuse and multiple personality disorder symptomatology,” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge.” J Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.233-8.
Surveyed 433 mental health professionals in San Diego County, California, concerning ritual abuse and multiple personality disorder (MPD). Results show no differences across disciplines/licenses in frequency of report of MPD diagnosis, ritual abuse patients seen, or presence of symptom clusters that may be associated with diagnosis of either ritual abuse or MPD. However, data suggest that a cluster of symptoms considered representative of several linked syndromes may become more tightly tied to a single diagnosis through the mechanism of workshop training.

Burgess, Ann Wolbert et. al. “Response patterns in children and adolescents exploited through sex rings and pornography,” Am J Psychiatry 141(5) 1984, pp.656-62.
Study of 66 children and adolescents exploited through sex rings and pornography.

Burgess, Ann Wolbert, Hartman, Carol R., Wolbert, Wendy A. and Grant, Christine A. “Child molestation: Assessing impact in multiple victims.” Arch of Psych Nursing 1(1) 1987 pp.33-39.
Presents data regarding trauma encapsulation and other reactions related to dissociative and post-traumatic stress disorders

Burgess, Ann Wolbert, Hartman, Carol R. and Kelley, Susan. “Assessing child abuse: The TRIADS checklist.” Psycho-Social Nursing 28(4) 1990 pp.7-8, pp.10-4.
Presents categories for child abuse assessment; includes checklist and discussion of ritualistic abuse.

Burket, Roger C. “Emotional and behavioral disturbances in adolescents involved in witchcraft and Satanism,” J Adolescence 17(1) 1994 pp.41-52.
Explored the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients with occult interests would manifest different psychopathology and behavioral disturbances than their hospitalized peers. The inpatient medical records of 157 consecutive adolescent (aged 13–17 yrs) admissions to a private psychiatric hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The 10 individuals with interest in witchcraft or Satanism had significantly more diagnoses of identity disorder, alcohol abuse, and hallucinogen abuse. Half of the Ss reported a history of self-mutilation. Although 50% of the occult group had arrest histories, none were for violent crimes. There were no significant differences in the criminal behaviors between those with and without interest in the occult.

Butler, Katy. “Caught in the cross fire.” Family Therapy Networker, March/April 1995.
Report on the “false memory” debate focuses on the Holly Ramona case, with reference to the Nicole Althaus ritual abuse recantation.

Bybee, Deborah, and Mowbray, Carol T. “An analysis of allegations of sexual abuse in a multi-victim day-care center case.” Child Abuse and Neglect 17(6) 1993 pp.767-83.
Study of case with over 100 alleged victims, with application of Statement Validity Analysis protocols.


Calof, D.L. (1991). “From the editor’s desk:  Regarding the credibility of ritual abuse reports.” Treating Abuse Today 1(4) pp.35-9.
We should expect the accounts from ritual abuse patients to be confusing, contradictory, bewildering and evocative.” The author lists several reasons for this and briefly discusses what the therapist must keep in mind during evaluation and treatment.

Campbell, Beatrix, “Children’s stories. (Ritual child abuse)” New Statesman and Society 3(121) 1990 p.15.
Supports the credibility of child victims in Nottingham, England.

Campbell, Beatrix, “Vortex of evil. (Ritual abuse of children in Nottingham)” New Statesman and Society 3(121) 1990 p.12.
Describes conflict between therapists and police regarding children’s ritual abuse disclosures in Nottingham, England.

Campbell, Beatrix “Hear no evil: The police in Notts want to ‘kill off once and for all’ stories of Satanic abuse.” New Statesman and Society 3(123) 1990 pp.10-2.
Describes reluctance of police to investigate allegations of ritual child abuse in Nottingham, England.

Campbell, Beatrix (1991). “Satanic abuse and the law: devil of a mess.” Guardian 20(2) p.23.
Features quotes from diaries kept by foster mothers of children who reported ritual abuse in Notttingham, England.

Campbell, Beatrix. “Seen but not heard.” Marxism Today Nov. 1990.
British journalist outlines political and ideological rationales for disbelieving children’s stories of Satanic ritual abuse.

Cavaglion, Gabriel. “The cultural construction of contemporary Satanic legends in Israel.” Folklore 116(3) Dec 2005  pp.255-271.

Chu, James A. “The traps for therapists in the treatment of trauma survivors.” Dissociation 1(4) 1988.

Clark, Cynthia M. “Deviant adolescent subcultures: Assessment strategies and clinical interventions.” Adolescence 27(102) 1992 pp.283-93.
Presents assessment strategies, preventive methods, and clinical interventions to assist clinicians working with teenagers involved with deviant subcultures: Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of the teens’ needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliations, which provide a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Prevention of alienation through family, school, and peers may minimize deviant subculture involvement. In cases for which prevention is not effective, clinical treatment and intervention may be necessary. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents’ involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in their approach to treatment.

Clark, Cynthia M. “Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism.” Adolescence 29(114) 1994 pp.461-8.
Discusses the psychosocial needs of adolescents involved with Satanism (a recognition of Satan as a charismatic figure honored and exalted by his followers). Allegiance to the cult may bring a sense of belonging, mastery and structure, a feeling of power and control, an extreme form of rebellion, satisfaction of curiosity and relief from boredom, a sense of self-esteem, and validation of anger. A continuum of deviant cultism is posited that extends from experimental, social/recreational, and situational use to intensified and/or compulsive use and chronic addiction. As adolescents become more involved with Satanism, withdrawal from normative society increases, secretiveness intensifies, and antisocial behaviors become more prevalent. It is critical to focus therapy on the psychosocial needs being met rather than on attempting to understand the intricate details of the Satanic practice itself.

Clark, J. G. “Cults,” J Am Med Assoc 242 1979 pp.279-81.
Discusses issues affecting children, adolescents, and their families who have been involved with religious or Satanic cults at many levels and suggests efforts to help them. The role of the social worker in treating clients who have been exposed to cult practices focuses across 4 areas: educational, practice, legal, and research. A case example with a 3-yr.-old girl illustrates the legal issues a social worker may face. To examine these issues an exploratory pilot survey was sent to 12 clergy members, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists with some experience in treating children, adolescents, and family members involved in a cult. Two mental health workers were also identified. Results provide information on the issues affecting children, adolescents, and families exposed to cults and describe helpful interventions used by mental health professionals.

Clifford, Marvin W. “Social work treatment with children, adolescents, and families exposed to religious and Satanic cults.” Social Work in Health Care 20(2) 1994 pp.35-59

Coleman, Joan. “Presenting features in adult victims of Satanist ritual abuse.” Child Abuse Review 3(2) 1994 pp.83-92.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Clinical data concerning five adult female victims of Satanist ritual abuse in multigenerational Satanist cults in the United Kingdom are presented to illustrate the issues related to psychological evaluations and the need to consider the possibility of Satanist ritual abuse in individual with certain symptoms.  Most mental health professionals are familiar with individuals, usually female, who recurrently injure themselves.  The five females studied ranged from 15 to 40 years of age when first seen. Their clinical features included self- injury, drug abuse, depression and mood swings, sleep disorders, eating disorders, somatic symptoms such as abdominal pain and migraine headaches, sexual disorders, relationship difficulties, behavior disorders, phobic anxiety, religious conflicts, dissociative features, and perceptual disorders. In each case, at least a year elapsed between the onset of psychiatric intervention and the disclosure of Satanist ritual abuse. All disclosures began with sexual abuse, either of themselves as children or the witnessing of the abuse of others. The ritual abuse included almost every imaginable type of physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, and spiritual abuse. Professionals are often skeptical about ritual abuse, but should consider the possibility of this kind of abuse in patients with these symptoms.

Comstock, Christine M., “Consistency with clinical experience versus sound theory: A response to Rosik.” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge.” J Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp. 226-8.
Comments on the article by C. H. Rosik (see PA 80:18558) and suggests that the psychoanalytic tradition of relating to an observing ego makes it unnecessary to conceptualize the internal self helper (ISH) as paranormal. There is danger in accepting a patient’s self-report as literal truth, since he/she may confuse functional with structured truth, thereby further confusing the clinical picture. The question of whether the perceptions of an ISH held by Rosik’s patient are her own or those she believes her therapist holds or wants to hold is addressed.

Cook, C., “Understanding ritual abuse: A study of thirty-three ritual abuse survivors,” Treating Abuse Today 1(4) 1991 pp.14-19.
The study examined survivors’ reported histories of ritual abuse along with their personal perspectives and feelings about the abuse. This summary article describes the sampling procedure, summarizes the findings regarding the nature of the ritual abuse reported, lists and categorizes the indicators of ritual abuse reported by study participants, offers observations about perpetrating group characteristics, discusses issues of disclosure and credibility as delineated by the study participants, and ends with a few comments regarding the findings and the need for further research.

Cook, K.  Survivors and supporters: Working on ritual abuse. Trouble and Strife 32 1995 pp.46-52.

Coons, Philip M., “Reports of Satanic ritual abuse: Further implications about pseudomemories,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 78(3) Part 2, Special Issue, 1994 pp.1376-8.
To investigate the possibility that patients’ reports of childhood Satanic ritual abuse (SRA) may not be valid, a retrospective chart review was conducted on 29 patients who presented to a dissociative disorders clinic and reported histories of SRA. Data support the notion that such “memories” can be accounted for, in part, by the misapplication of hypnosis or regressive therapies.

Coons, Philip M., “Factitious disorder (Munchausen type) involving allegations of ritual Satanic abuse: A case report.” Dissociation (4) 1990 pp.177-8.
Presents the case of a 25-yr.-old woman who was hospitalized after threatening suicide. The S alleged that she had been the victim of ritual Satanic abuse. A careful evaluation, including history taking, clinical observation, request for collateral information, and psychological testing, failed to corroborate her story and pointed instead to a diagnosis of factitious disorder of the Munchausen type.

Cowper, Francis, “Satanism resurgent. (London letter),” NY Law J 195, May 1986 p. 2. and Strife 32 1995) pp.46-52
KEY WORDS: Knight, Derry Mainwaring – litigation; Satanism – litigation; Fraud – litigation; Great Britain.

Cozolino, Louis J. “The ritual abuse of children: Implications for clinical practice and research.” J Sex Research 26(1) 1989 pp.131-8.
Discusses research on ritual child abuse and considers diagnostic and therapeutic issues raised by such abuse. Signs and symptoms that indicate ritual abuse are reviewed. It is noted that there is a high frequency of multiple personality disorder among these patients, possibly due to inconsistent alternation between abuse and love. Assisting patients in the detection, uncovering, and working-through of this form of severe trauma may require clinicians to first confront their own denial of such realities. An awareness of ritual abuse and an openness to its human and clinical significance may lead to the development of research methodologies that can address this complicated psychosocial phenomenon.

Cozolino, Louis J. “Ritualistic child abuse, psychopathology and evil.” Psychology and Theology 18(3) Fall 1990 pp.218-27.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Ritualistic abuse is an extreme form of psychological, physical, and sexual maltreatment of children in the context of “religious” ceremony. The clinical presentation of the victims of such abuse is complex and raises many issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology as well as the importance of spiritual counseling. The acknowledgement of belief systems so repugnant to the Judeo-Christian world view and the addressing of our own negative emotional reactions to the reality of ritualistic abuse are important first steps in responding to these issues. The phenomenon of ritualistic child abuse forces us to consider the relationship between theological notions of evil and psychological concepts of psychopathology. This article addresses the phenomenon of ritualistic child abuse, the psychological sequelae of victimization, and possible motivations for this form of abuse.

Cozolino, Louis J. “Some questions come to mind: A response to Ganaway.” Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.206-7.

Creighton, Susan J. (1993). “Organized Abuse: NSPCC experience.” Child Abuse Review 2, pp.232-242. and Strife 32 1995) pp.46-52 Results of a 1990-1991 survey conducted by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Great Britain.

Crook, Lynn.  ”‘The Search for Satan’: three years later.” Treating Abuse Today 8(5) Sept/Oct 1998 pp.8-14. Discusses the documentary “The Search for Satan,” shown in October 1995 as part of the Public Broadcasting Service’s “Frontline” series, and the legal case (United States v. Peterson, Seward, Mueck, Keraga and Davis) arising from the circumstances recounted in that broadcast.

Cuomo, Chris. “Ritual abuse: Making connections.” Lesbian Ethics 4(1) 1992 p.345.

Curran, David K. “Why troubled teenagers might turn to Satanism.” Am School Board J 176(8) August 1989 pp.12-4, p.39.
Adolescent involvement in Satanism is a symptom, not the actual ailment. Having counseling or mental health personnel in a high school allows needy students to refer themselves for counseling. Musical preference is a weak predictor of teenagers’ attitudes toward the occult and Satanism.