Empirical Studies Related to Ritual Abuse
In June 2007, a search of data bases covered by Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Health Sources: Nursing/Academic Edition, PsycINFO, and PubMed yielded 47 empirical studies in which the term “ritual abuse” or a similar term, i.e., “ritualistic abuse,” “satanic abuse,” “satanist abuse,” was used in the title, subject, or as a keyword. This bibliography was prepared in conjunction with the Extreme Abuse Survey.
The articles can be grouped into the following categories:
11 Child victims of ritual abuse
7 Clinical adult case studies
6 Surveys of mental health professionals
4 Analyses of clinical/archival data on multiple adult survivors
4 Psychometric studies with adult survivors
3 Simulation studies using university students as subjects
3 Prevalence studies of adult and child victims
2 Surveys of child agency workers
2 Historical case studies
2 Groups of adult RA survivors compared with other groups
2 Miscellaneous studies
1 Group of RA adults interviewed
Child victims of ritual abuse
1. Interviewing techniques in sexual abuse cases--A comparison of a day-care abuse case with normal abuse cases. Schreiber, Nadja; Swiss Journal of Psychology - Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie - Revue Suisse de Psychologie, Vol 59(3), Sep 2000. pp. 196-206.
2. Children’s religious knowledge: Implications for understanding satanic ritual abuse allegations. Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi A.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 21(11), Nov 1997. pp. 1111-1130.
3. Effects of ritual abuse: The results of three surveys in the Netherlands. Jonker, Fred; Jonker-Bakker, Ietjie; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 21(6), Jun 1997. pp. 541-556.
4. Case studies of children presenting with a history of ritualistic abuse. King. G. F.; Yorker, B. Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing Vol 9(2), Apri-June 1996.
5. Children's patterns of disclosures and recantations of sexual and ritualistic abuse allegations in psychotherapy. Gonzalez, Lauren S.; Waterman, Jill; Kelly, Robert J.; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 17(2), Mar-Apr 1993. pp. 281-289.
6. Experiences with Ritualist Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study from the Netherlands. Jonker, F.; Jonker-Bakker, P.; Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, v15 n3 p191-96 1991.
7. Ritualistic child abuse in a neighborhood setting. Snow, Barbara; Sorensen, Teena; Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol 5(4), Dec 1990. pp. 474-487.
8. Ritual, and child sexual abuse, but not ritual child sexual abuse. Gallagher, Bernard; Child Abuse Review, Vol 9(5), Sep-Oct 2000. pp. 321-327.
9. Parental stress response to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers. Kelley, Susan J.; Nursing Research, Vol 39(1), Jan-Feb 1990. pp. 25-29.
10. Stress responses of children to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse in day care centers. Kelley, Susan J.; Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol 4(4), Dec 1989. pp. 502-513.
11. Correlates for psychological, physical, emotional and ritualistic forms of child abuse among high school students in the Northern Province, South Africa. Madu, S. N.; Peltzer, K.; Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol 11(1), 1999. pp. 56-66.
Clinical adult case studies
1. A case history of family and cult abuse. Ireland, Sharon J.; Ireland, Murray J.; Journal of Psychohistory, Vol 21(4), Spr 1994. Special issue: Cult abuse of children: Witch hunt or reality? pp. 417-428.
2. Survivors of sadistic abuse: How to spot them. Feldman GC; Emergency Medicine, 1993 Aug; 25 (11): 83-7.
3. Demonic possession as a consequence of childhood trauma. Hill, Sally; Goodwin, Jean R.; Journal of Psychohistory, Vol 20(4), Spr 1993. Special issue: Child abuse and world affairs. pp. 399-411.
4. Dream wars: A case study of a woman with multiple personality disorder. Paley, Karen S.; Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, Vol 5(2), Jun 1992. pp. 111-116.
5. Factitious disorder (Munchausen type) involving allegations of ritual Satanic abuse: A case report. Coons, Philip M.; Grier, Finlay; Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, Vol 3(4), Dec 1990. pp. 177-178.
6. Coping skills of ritual abuse survivors: An exploratory study. Juhasz, Susan; Smith College Studies in Social Work, Vol 65(3), Jun 1995. pp. 255-267.
7. Ritual abuse and recovery: Survivors’ personal accounts. Pike, Patricia L.; Mohline, Richard J.; Journal of Psychology & Theology, Vol 23(1), Spr 1995. pp. 45-55.
Surveys of mental health professionals
1. “Recovered-memory” therapy: Profession at a turning point. Feigon, Elizabeth A.; de Rivera, Joseph; Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 39(6), Nov-Dec 1998. pp. 338-344.
2. An analysis of ritualistic and religion-related child abuse allegations. Bottoms, Bette L.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Goodman, Gail S.; Law and Human Behavior, Vol 20(1), Feb 1996. pp. 1-34.
3. Beliefs about the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder, sexual abuse, and ritual abuse among religious and nonreligious therapists. McMinn, Mark R.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol 26(3), Jun 1995. pp. 257-261.
4. The relationship between training of mental health professionals and the reporting of ritual abuse and multiple personality disorder symptomatology. Bucky, Steven F.; Dalenberg, Constance; Journal of Psychology & Theology, Vol 20(3), Fal 1992. Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. pp. 233-238.
5. Ritual Abuse: Consequences for Professionals. By: Youngson, Sheila C. Child Abuse Review, Dec93, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p251-262, 12p; (AN 12147032)
6. Counselors’ beliefs about ritual abuse: An Australian study. Schmuttermaier, John; Veno, Arthur; Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol 8(3), 1999. pp. 45-63.
Analyses of clinical/archival data on multiple adult survivors
1. Reports of satanic ritual abuse: Further implications about pseudomemories. Coons, Philip M.; Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol 78(3, Pt 2), Spec Issue, Jun 1994. pp. 1376-1378.
2. Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome: Report of 37 cases. Young, Walter C.; Sachs, Roberta G.; Braun, Bennett G.; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 15(3), 1991. pp. 181-189.
3. The role of sex and pregnancy in Satanic cults. Sachs, Roberta G.; Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, Vol 5(2), Win 1990. pp. 105-113.
4. Presenting features in adult victims of satanist ritual abuse. Coleman, Joan; Child Abuse Review, Vol 3(2), Jun 1994. pp. 83-92.
Psychometric studies with adult survivors
1. The role of media and hospital exposure on Rorschach response patterns by patients reporting satanic ritual abuse. Leavitt, Frank; Labott, Susan M.; American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Vol 18(2), 2000. pp. 35-55.
2. Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting satanic ritual abuse in childhood. Leavitt, Frank; Labott, Susan M.; Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 54(7), Nov 1998. pp. 933-943.
3. Psychometric measures of trauma among psychiatric patients reporting ritual abuse. Noblitt, James Randall; Psychological Reports, Vol 77(3, Pt 1), Dec 1995. pp. 743-747.
4. Clinical correlates of alleged satanic abuse and less controversial sexual molestation. Leavitt, Frank; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 18(4), Apr 1994. pp. 387-392.
Simulation studies using university students as subjects
1. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: A study of role-played enactments. Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay; International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol 50(1), Jan 2002. pp. 67-85.
2. Jurors’ reactions to satanic ritual abuse allegations. Bottoms, Bette L.; Diviak, Kathleen R.; Davis, Suzanne L.; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 21(9), Sep 1997. pp. 845-859.
3. Repressed memory lawsuits: Potential verdict predictors. Schutte, James W.; Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol 12(4), Fal 1994. pp. 409-416.
Prevalence studies of adult and child victims
1. Prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Madu, S. N.; Psychological Reports, Vol 89(2), Oct 2001. pp. 431-444.
2. The prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in the Northern Province, South Africa. Madu, S. N.; Peltzer, K.; Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol 10(2), 1998. Special issue: Adolescence. pp. 80-92.
3. Task force study of ritual crime. Maddox, Michael P.; Cultic Studies Journal, Vol 8(2), 1991. pp. 191-250.
Surveys of child agency workers
1. A comparison of protective service workers’ perceptions of ritual and sexual abuse in children: An exploratory study. Lewandowski, Cathleen A.; Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol 4(2), 1995. pp. 67-81.
2. Assessment and intervention in cases of suspected ritual child sexual abuse. Gallagher, Bernard; Child Abuse Review, Vol 10(4), Jul-Aug 2001. pp. 227-242.
Historical case studies
1. False claims of victimization: A historical illustration of a contemporary problem. Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 56(2), 2002. pp. 132-136.
2. False allegations of satanic abuse: Case studies from the witch panic in Rättvik 1670-71. Sjöberg, R. L.; European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol 6(4), Dec 1997. pp. 219-226.
Groups of adult RA survivors compared with other groups
1. Supernatural Support Groups: Who Are the UFO Abductees and Ritual-Abuse Survivors? Bader, Christopher D.; Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol 42(4), Dec 2003. pp. 669-678.
2. Psychological sequelae in adult females reporting childhood ritualistic abuse. Lawrence, Kathy J.; Cozolino, Louis; Foy, David W.; Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol 19(8), Aug 1995. pp. 975-984.
1. Logotherapy's place for the ritually abused. Ladd, Jennifer; International Forum for Logotherapy, Vol 14(2), Fal 1991. pp. 82-86.
2. Satanist abuse and alien abduction: A comparative analysis theorizing temporal lobe activity as a possible connection between anomalous memories. Paley, John; British Journal of Social Work, Vol 27(1), Feb 1997. pp. 43-70.
Group of RA adults interviewed
1. Adults who report childhood ritualistic abuse. Shaffer, Ruth E.; Cozolino, Louis J.; Journal of Psychology & Theology, Vol 20(3), Fal 1992. Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. pp. 188-193.