Safety Notice

If you are a survivor, please be careful in reading the information compiled here. It is impossible to give information on ritual abuse, and about people's opinions about ritual abuse, in a way that is not upsetting and/or triggering. Only you know how much is wise to read, and how much information you can absorb at one time.

Journal Articles, by Author, M-R


MacHovec, Frank. “ Cults: Forensic and therapeutic aspects.” Behavioral Sciences & the Law Winter 1992 10(1) p.31-7.

Maddox, Michael P. “Task force study of ritual crime.” Cultic Studies J 8(2) 2 1991 pp.191-250.
Discusses the findings of a survey of law enforcement agencies, educators, social service departments, and licensed mental health practitioners (MHPs) as to the incidence of ritual crime (RC) and ritual abuse (RA) in Virginia. All 174 chiefs of police, 87 sheriffs, 145 school district officials, and 155 MHPs received a copy of the survey. 36 surveys were returned. Among MHPs who reported clients involved in RC, most incidents involved violent crime. While evidence in support of organized RC was found almost exclusively in the mental health community, many MHPs rejected the existence of a broad-based criminal conspiracy, but accepted the existence of more limited RC. Whether a therapist accepts a patient’s claim of RA depends on the pathology for which the patient is diagnosed. Many MHPs felt that some patients reporting RA are being misdiagnosed as sufferers of multiple personality disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III--Revised (DSM-III--R).

Madu, S. N. and Peltzer, K. “Correlates for psychological, physical, emotional and ritualistic forms of child abuse among high school students in the Northern Province, South Africa.”  Southern African J Child and Adolescent Mental Health 11(1) 1999 pp.56-66.

Madu, S. N. “The prevalence of child abuse among university students.”  Southern African J Child and Adolescent Mental Health 14(2) 2002 pp.123-7.

Madu, S. N. (2001) “Prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.” Psychological Reports. 89(2) 2001) p.431.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Based on self-reports the prevalence during childhood of psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among 559 high school students in Standards 7, 8, 9, and 10 of three high schools in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa was examined. The questionnaire asked for the demographic information and experiences of psychological, physical, and emotional abuse by their parents or adult caretakers as well as ritualistic abusive experiences before they were 17 years of age plus an estimate of self-perceived abuse during childhood and an overall rating of their own childhood. Analysis showed the self-reported prevalence rates to be as follows: 70.7% psychologically abused (but 14.4% for extreme cases), 27.0% physically abused, 35.3% emotionally abused, and 10.0% ritualistically abused. 13.4% of those who reported themselves as psychologically abused, 20.7% of the physically abused, 19.3% of the emotionally abused, and 35.8% of the ritualistically abused perceive themselves as not abused in any form during childhood. Yet, of the psychologically abused 23.4%, of the physically abused 18.2%, of the emotionally abused 22.0%, and of the ritualistically abused 28.3% rated their childhood as ‘very unhappy’. It appears these various forms of abuse are experienced by the participants as widespread, suggesting that a much more serious problem may exist than has been recognised. More research into those forms of child abuse in this Province and elsewhere is needed for a clear appreciation of the problems and the effects of such abuse in children’s behavior.

Maharidge, Dale. “Many cases charging Satanic rituals and mass child abuse filed, but few survive; Gullible prosecutors or incredulous jurors?” The Los Angeles Daily J 98 Nov 1 1985 p.18.

Mallinckrodt, B., McCreary, B. A. and Robertson, A. K. “Co-occurrence of eating disorders and incest: The role of attachment, family environment and social competencies.” J Consulting Psychology 42 1995 pp.178-86.

Mandell, Herbert E. and Schiff, Matthew. “Schizophrenia or terrifying reality? A supervisor’s dilemma.” Clinical Supervisor 11(2) 1993
Clinicians are increasingly asked to assess and treat children and adolescents who are victims of trauma, including physical/sexual abuse, and to distinguish such trauma from psychosis. A case of an abused 16-yr-old male is presented who was misdiagnosed as schizophrenic on the basis of projective test results. Later, when the S revealed his extensive involvement with a Satanic cult, his regression and test results could be understood as resulting from the psychic trauma of the cult and his history of deprivation and abuse. Suggestions are made concerning how careful supervision can clarify such diagnostic dilemmas, making the best use of psychiatric and psychological testing tools.

Marlin, Beth. “The cannibal case.” Canadian Lawyer October 1987 pp. 24-7 p.43.
Report on child custody hearing in Hamilton, Ontario, involving allegations of ritual child abuse.

Martin, Sharon (1989). “Ritualistic abuse.” Kentucky Hospitals 6(3) 1989 pp.14-6.
Examines symptomology of child victims, adolescent “dabblers” and adult survivors.

Matzner, Fredrick J. “Does Satanism exist?” [letter] J Am Acad Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 30(5) 1991 pp.848-9.
Criticizes B. Nurcombe and J. Unutzer’s (see PA 78:24632) article, which suggests that orthodox Satanic abuse of children does occur. The article fails to provide evidence supporting its description of Satanic activity and fails to present a scientific approach to the issue.

Maxwell, Joe. “Article claims Warnke’s Satanic past a fraud.” Christianity Today 36(9) 1992 pp.50-1.
Cornerstone magazine accused Warnke, author of The Satan Seller, of fabricating the autobiographical book which is used a justification for investigation of widespread Satanism.

McLeod, Kay and Goddard, Christopher. “The ritual abuse of children: A critical perspective.” Children Australia 1605 2005.

McCulley, Dale. “Satanic ritual abuse: A question of memory,” Psychology and Theology 22(3) 1994 pp.167-72.
Cites researchers who point to the extreme malleability of human memory as evidence that accounts of Satanic ritual abuse (SRA), especially those involving delayed memory, are fantasies implanted by incompetent clinicians. However, leading memory researchers such as B. van der Kolk (e.g., 1987 and 1993; see also PA 76:33202) maintain that traumatic memories, which typically are engraved in the sensorimotor processes, are not subject to the same kinds of contamination that can affect normal memory. Traumatic (psychogenic) amnesia is a phenomenon known to mental health professionals for more than 100 yrs. The clinically observed characteristics of traumatic memory formation and retrieval match precisely the patterns of memory recovery exhibited by SRA survivors and strongly confirm the reality of their cult abuse.

McCully, Robert S. “The laugh of Satan: A study of a familial murderer.” Personality Assessment 42(1) 1978 pp.81-91.
Presents the case report of an 18-yr-old who killed his mother, half-brother and step-father, and examines the imagery the S associated to 3 editions of inkblots, including the Rorschach and the Behn-Rorschach. Several of Jung’s concepts, notably his view about the power of shadow-projections to influence conscious percepts and his philosophy about evil as a collective phenomenon, were used to speculate about ways to understand this S’s extreme form of violence.

McCully, Robert S. “Satan’s eclipse: A familial murderer six years later.” British J Projective Psychology and Personality 125(2) 980 pp.13-7.
Presents data from a follow-up blind analysis of a 24-yr old male murderer’s Rorschach responses. At the age of 18 the S had shot and killed 4 members of his immediate family. Comparative data from the 2 Rorschach administrations (right after the murders and again 6 yrs later) are presented and related to the S’s long-standing interest in Nazism and the prominent religious imagery in his responses.

McFadyen, Alistair, Hanks, Helga and James, C. “Ritual abuse: A definition.” Child Abuse Review 2(1) Mar 1993 pp.35-41.

McFall, Mairi. “Building connections: Ritual abuse.” Wlw 13(3/4) 1990 p.8.

McFarland, Robert B. and Lockerbie, Grace. “Difficulties in treating ritually abused children.” J Psychohistory , 21(4) Spring 1994 pp.429-34. 
Providing three vignettes concerning victims of child ritual abuse , the authors state “we both believe cult abuse exists because of what several patients of ours have told us, patients who were uninfluenced by any suggestions by the therapist during treatment.” 

McFarland, Robert B. “The Children of God.” J Psychohistory 21(4) Spring 1994.

McLeod, K. and Goddard, C. R.  “The ritual abuse of children  A critical perspective.” Children Australia 30(1) 2005 pp.27-34.

McMinn, Mark R., and Wade, Nathaniel G. “Beliefs about the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder, sexual abuse, and ritual abuse among religious and nonreligious therapists.” Professional Psychology Research and Practice 26(3) 1995 pp.257-61.
Four hundred ninety-seven Christian therapists and 100 members of the American Psychological Association returned questionnaires indicating the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID), sexual abuse, and ritual abuse in their clinical practices. There was a low rate of diagnosing DID and ritual abuse among all respondents. Christian psychologists were slightly more likely to diagnose ritual abuse than other psychologists, but they were no more likely to diagnose DID or sexual abuse. No differences were observed in diagnosing ritual abuse or DID between Christian psychologists, other licensed Christian therapists, nonlicensed Christian therapists, and lay counselors. Licensed Christian therapists who are not psychologists reported a greater prevalence of sexual abuse among their clients than nonlicensed Christian therapists and lay counselors. Implications for clinical practice are

McShane, Claudette. “Satanic sexual abuse: A paradigm” Affilia J Women and Social Work 8(2) 1993.
A domination-legitimation-resistance paradigm for conceptualizing Satanic sexual abuse is presented. The model explains why Satanic sexual abuse is perceived as normal by both perpetrators and survivors of this form of abuse. Information about the barriers to resistance are also provided so social workers can be aware of the salient issues involved in Satanic sexual abuse of females.

Mercer, Joyce Ann. “‘The devil made me do it:’  Teens, drugs, and Satanism.” Emotional and Behavioral Problems 2(3) 1993 pp.11-5.
Explores adolescent Satanism as a phenomenon of adolescent developmental issues, most frequently occurring in the context of chemical abuse. Explains what a cult is, reviews history of Church of Satan, identifies characteristics of adolescent Satanism, and provides a case study of 16-year-old male with chemical dependency who becomes involved in a Satanic cult.

Middleton, Warwick. “Further comments on multiple personality disorder.” Australian and New Zealand J Psychiatry; 28(1) 1994 pp.154-56.
Responds to the letter by J. L. Gelb (see PA 81:21458) regarding multiple personality disorder (MPD) and Satanic ritual abuse and emphasizes the association between childhood abuse and MPD. Brief observations pertinent to Gelb’s comments are made, based on the author’s clinical notes on 40 MPD patients.

Miller, D. A., McKlusky-Fawcett, K. and Irving L. M. “The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent onset of bulimia.” Child Abuse and Neglect 17 1993 pp.305-14.

Miller, J. S. “The utilization of hypnotic techniques in religious cult conversion.” Cultic Studies J 3(2) 1986 pp.243-50.

Moore, L. “It happened to me.” Community Care May 5 2005, pp.36-38.
Article describes the author’s personal childhood experiences of Satanic ritual abuse, and professionals’ failure to believe her. There is strong resistance amongst professionals to accepting that ritual abuse happens.

Moriarty, Anthony R., “Adolescent Satanic cult dabblers: A differential diagnosis,” Mental Health Counseling 13(3) 1991 pp.393-404.
Attempts to assist the mental health counselor to more accurately evaluate the impact of Satanism by diagnosing adolescent Satanists from a differential perspective. The author reviews 4 types of adolescents likely to be associated with Satanism (psychopathic delinquents, angry misfits, pseudo-intellectuals, and suicidal impulsives). Case vignettes are given of 4 adolescents (aged 14--17 yrs) who represent each type. A different treatment strategy is recommended for each.

Moriarty, Anthony. “Practical aspects of adolescent Satanism: A response to Wynkoop.” Mental Health Counseling, 15(2) 1993 pp.190-92.
Responds to previous article by Wynkoop critiquing Moriarty’s article of adolescent Satanism. Notes that author’s (Moriarty) previous article addresses Satanism from perspective of differential diagnoses and that Wynkoop’s critique cites number of improvements that author believes strengthens original article. Notes that some of Wynkoop’s points need further clarification and responds to Wynkoop.

Moriarty, Anthony R. “Psychological dynamics of adolescent Satanism,” Mental Health Counseling 12(2) 1990 pp.186-98.
Describes the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Those processes are described in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. A model, called the web of psychic tension, is proposed to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Finally, 3 techniques for intervention with Satanists are briefly described.

Morse, J. and Morse, E. “Toward a theory of therapy with cult victims,” Am J Psychotherapy, 16, 1987 pp. 563-70.

Moss, Debra C. (1987). “Are the children lying?” The American Bar Association J. May 1 1987  pp.59-62.
Interviews with professionals and parents; highlights ritual abuse investigations at the McMartin preschool, the Rogers Park Jewish Community Center in Chicago, and in Jordan, Minnesota.

Mulhern, Sherrill A. “Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: A sociohistorical perspective.” Special Issue: Hypnosis and delayed recall: I, International J Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42(4) 1994 pp.265-88.
Explores the historical and social underpinnings of the current epidemic of patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) who have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine Satanic cults. Because the Satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, the hypothetical perpetrators of Satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of those who have been caught up in the social delusion. (German, French & Spanish abstracts).

Mulhern, Sherrill A. “Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical response,” Child Abuse and Neglect 15(4) 1991 pp.609-11.
Critiques the article by W. C. Young, et. al. (see PA 78:24666) concerning patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood. It is argued that independent of a clinical syndrome, the authors’ own beliefs and the introspective therapeutic techniques employed could have contributed to the similar Satanic content of the patient narratives.

Mulhern, Sherrill A. “Ritual abuse: Defining a syndrome versus defending a belief,” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.230-2.
Reviews research showing how Satanic ritual abuse (SRA) training seminars proposed to mental health professionals between 1987 and 1990 constituted a form of proselytizing. Such presentations were designed to convert clinicians before they began listening to patients to believe in the plausible existence of Satanic blood cults. Diagnostic and treatment techniques recommended in SRA seminars, as well as postulated explanations for patients’ exacerbated clinical symptoms, presupposed the facticity of networks of organized groups of perpetrators. Patients’ better interests are ill served when their therapists’ “educated” ears have been deafened by uncritical belief.

Murray, Nicholas. “Children: Organized abuse. A strategy of co-operation.” Community Care. May 13, 1993 pp.16-17.
Highlights investigation of ritual child abuse by police and social workers in Wales.

Nash, M., R., Hulsey, T. L., Sexton, M. C., Harralson, T. L., and Lambert, W. “Long term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse : perceived family environment, psychopathology, and dissociation.” Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61 1993 pp. 276-83.

Newton, Michael (1996). “Written in blood: A history of human sacrifice.” J Psychohistory, 24(2) 1996 pp.104-31.
Historical overview of human sacrifice in western and non-western culture.

Neswald, David W., Gould, Catherine, and Graham-Costain, Vicki. “Common ‘programs’ observed in survivors of Satanic ritualistic abuse.” California Therapist Sept/Oct 1991.
This article examines the various types of cult programming while discussing the treatment of MPD and SRA.

Neswald, David W. and Gould, Catherine. “Basic treatment and program neutralization strategies for adult MPD survivors of Satanic ritual abuse.” Treating Abuse Today 2(3) 3 1992 pp.5-10.

Newson, Elizabeth. “Video violence and the protection of children.” J Mental Health, June 1994 3(2) p.221.

Noblitt, James Randall. “Psychometric measures of trauma among psychiatric patients reporting ritual abuse.” Psych Reports 77(3) 1995 pp.743-7.
Increasing reports by psychiatric patients of ritual abuse have provoked a debate about the appropriate interpretation of such allegations. Some authors contend that these claims represents fantasy material, dissimulation, or delusions. Others maintain that patients’ descriptions of ritualized trauma may constitute a newly identified psychiatric syndrome. The present investigation compared psychometric measures of trauma, the MMPI-2 PK and PS scales, in a group of patients reporting ritual abuse and another group with no such accounts of ritual abuse. Comparisons were statistically significant with mean PK and PS scores of 86.3 and 85.8, respectively, for the 34 reporting ritual abuse and 58.3 and 58.7 for the 31 not reporting ritual abuse. Further, 91% of the patients alleging ritual abuse had scores on at least one of the two scales within the clinical range, i.e., T score > or = 65. It was concluded that patients reporting histories of ritual abuse also showed significantly elevated scores on these scales and their scores were higher than those obtained for a sample of patients not reporting ritual abuse.

Nurcombe, Barry and J. Unutzer (1991). “The ritual abuse of children: Clinical features and diagnostic reasoning.” Erratum. Am Acad Child and Adol Psych 30(5) 1991 p.846.
Reports an error in the original article by B. Nurcombe and J. Unutzer ( J Am Acad Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2) March 1991 pp.272-6). The article, “The ritual abuse of children: Clinical features and diagnostic reasoning,” should have been labeled “Case Study.”
(The following abstract of this article originally appeared in PA 78:24632.) Presents a case study involving alleged ritual sexual abuse of a 5-yr-old female. Clinical recognition and diagnostic reasoning are discussed. Child victims of ritual molestation exhibit nonspecific signs of stress (e.g., somatic symptoms, anxiety), specific signs of sexual molestation, and phenomena connoting bizarre rituals. It is concluded that, although the evidence for the occurrence of ritual abuse is sketchy, a high index of suspicion is appropriate.

Nurcombe, Barry. “Does Satanism exist?” Reply, Am Acad Child and Adol Psych 30(5) 1991 pp.848-9.
Responds to F. J. Matzner’s (see PA 79:9398) comments regarding B. Nurcombe and J. Unutzer’s (see PA 78:24632) article on ritual Satanic abuse of children. Focus is on (1) police suspicions of the existence of an underground Satanic network, (2) Satanic practices depicted by writers as a parody of Christian ritual, and (3) proof of the existence of child-abusing pornographic rings and secret Satanic cells.

Nurcombe, Barry. “Ritual abuse of children.” Reply. Am Acad Child and Adol Psych 30(6) 1991 pp.1024-5.
Replies to comments by M. Shopper (see PA 79:20184) concerning B. Nurcombe and J. Unutzer’s (see PA  78:24632) article on the ritual abuse of children and the probable abuse of a particular girl. Responses are made to Shopper’s concerns regarding the interview with the girl, specifically, the use of anatomically explicit dolls, the sequence of events, the fantastic allegations, reality testing, consistency, folie-a-deux, and the child’s apparent lack of fear of her parents.

Nurcombe, Barry and Unutzer, Jurgen “The ritual abuse of children: Clinical features and diagnostic reasoning.” [published erratum appears in Am Acad Child Adoles Psych 30(5) 1991 p. 846] [see comments] Am Acad Child Adoles Psych 30(2) 1991 pp.272-6.
Presents a case study involving alleged ritual sexual abuse of a 5-yr-old female. Clinical recognition and diagnostic reasoning are discussed. Child victims of ritual molestation exhibit nonspecific signs of stress (e.g., somatic symptoms, anxiety), specific signs of sexual molestation, and phenomena connoting bizarre rituals. It is concluded that, although the evidence for the occurrence of ritual abuse is sketchy, a high index of suspicion is appropriate.



Ochberg, F. M. “Victims of terrorism.” Clinical Psychiatry 41 1980 pp.73-4.

Ofshe, R. J. “Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: False memory confession due to dissociative state; Mis-identified multiple personality and the Satanic cult hypothesis,” Internat J Clinical And Exper Hypnosis, 40(3) 1992 pp.125-56.
Presents the case of a 43-yr-old man who, after induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation, developed pseudomemories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudomemories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 mo. During this time, S, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt, and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed. An experiment demonstrated S’s extreme suggestibility. It was concluded that the cult did not exist and S’s confessions were coerced internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed S as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality.

Ofshe, Richard J. and Singer, Margaret Thaler. “Recovered-memory therapy and robust repression: influence and pseudomemories”. Internat J Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 42(4) Oct. 1994  pp.391-410.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: A subset of the psychotherapists practicing trauma-focused therapy predicate their treatment on the existence of a newly claimed, powerful form of repression that differs from repression as used in the psychoanalytic tradition and from amnesia in any of its recognized forms. Recovered-memory specialists assist patients to supposedly retrieve vast quantities of information (e.g., utterly new dramatic life histories) that were allegedly unavailable to consciousness for years or decades. We refer to the hypothesized mental mechanism as robust repression and call attention to the absence of evidence documenting its validity and to the differences between it and other mental mechanisms and memory features. No recovered-memory practitioner has ever published a full specification of the attributes of this mechanism. That is, the properties it would have to have for the narratives developed during therapy to be historically accurate to any significant degree. This article reports a specification of the properties of the robust repression mechanism based on interviews with current and former patients, practitioners’ writings, and reports to researchers and clinicians. The spread of reliance on the robust repression mechanism over the past 20 years through portions of the clinical community is traced. While involved in therapy, patients of recovered-memory practitioners come to believe that they have either instantly repressed large numbers of discrete events or simultaneously repressed all information about abuse they may have endured for as long as a decade. Patients’ therapy-derived accounts are thought by some social influence, memory, and clinical specialists to be inadvertently created iatrogenic effects: inaccurate pseudomemories and confabulations produced due to patient-therapist interaction, the use of leading, suggestions, hypnosis, and the mismanagement of the dependent relation of the patient on the therapist. Three cases are reported which illustrate how new life accounts predicated by robust repression can develop during therapy with a recovered-memory practitioner.
KEY WORDS: Child Abuse - Dissociative Identity Disorder - False Memory - Hypnotherapy - Incest - Memory Retrieval Techniques - Psychotherapeutic Processes - Rape - Repression - Ritual Abuse – Survivors

Ogloff, James R. and Pfeifer, Jeffrey E. “Cults and the law: A discussion of the legality of alleged cult activities.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law 10(1) 1992 pp.117-40.
Investigated how widespread the belief is that cults (and Satanic cults (SCs) in particular) are engaged in illegal activity, including human sacrifice. A survey of 281 undergraduates in the US and Canada (considered as a whole) assessed their attitudes toward cults, alternative religious groups (ARGs), and SCs and identified activities in which Ss believed them to be engaged. While 97% of the Ss believed SCs to exist, only 10% claimed personal knowledge of their existence. While Ss had negative feelings regarding cults, and even stronger negative feelings about SCs, their feelings about ARGs were somewhat less negative. It is argued that established religions began as cults. Even assuming that SCs exist, few activities attributed to them by Ss are illegal.

Olio, Karen A. and William F. Cornell. “The Ingram case: Pseudomemory or pseudoscience?” Violence Update, 4(10) 1994  pp.3-5.
Report on Richard Ofshe’s suggestibility study on Paul Ingram, a sheriff’s deputy who confessed to ritual abuse of his daughters.

Ondrovik, Joann. “Is therapy science or religion, logic or faith? A response to Shaffer and Cozolino, Gould and Cozolino, and Friesen.” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.210-2.
Comments on articles by R. E. Shaffer and L. J. Cozolino (see PA 80:18563), C. Gould and Cozolino (see PA  80:18534), and J. G. Friesen (see PA 80:18528), which reference theology or spirituality in relation to clinical approaches to Satanic ritual abuse. The comment stresses the importance of a faith in and understanding of the patient’s reality and of treating that reality as it is verbalized in the clinical setting. It may not be important to classify abuse or torture to treat the patient effectively.

Ondrovik, Joann. “A reaction to Rosik’s ‘Conversations with an internal self helper,” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.224-5.
Comments on the article by C. H. Rosik (see PA 80:18558) concerning the concept of an internal self helper (ISH). The authors attempt to expand on Rosik’s account of the history of the ISH, but agree with Rosik’s views on (1) the conflict between theology and psychology in respect to the spiritual quality of the ISH and (2) implications for treatment without necessity of theological or scientific labels and prejudices.


Paley, Karen S. “Dream wars: A case study of a woman with multiple personality disorder.” Dissociation 52 pp.111-16.
Discusses the use of dream work with patients having multiple personality disorder. Dreams can be used in clinical practice to aid in the breakdown of barriers erected to block memories of childhood abuse, recognize alter personalities, control malevolent alters, and identify and reduce conflicts among personalities. An illustrative case report of the treatment of a 28-yr-old female alleged Satanic ritual abuse survivor demonstrates the vitiation of a perpetrator alter through dream work. The balance of power within the host personality shifted as non-perpetrating personalities lined up to isolate the abuser.

Paley, John.  ”Memories of Satanist abuse.” Health and Social Care in the Community 3(2) March 1995 pp.125-128.  
The author draws parallels between reports of experiencing Satanic abuse and alien abduction. He briefly reviews the possible etiologies of such reports.

Paley, John. “Satanist abuse and alien abduction: A comparative analysis theorizing temporal lobe activity as a possible connection between anomalous memories.”  British J Social Work 27(1), Feb 1997 pp.43-70.

Passantino, Bob. “Satanic ritual abuse in popular Christian literature: Why Christians fall for a lie searching for the truth.” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.299-305.
Discusses some of the lay and secular popular literature that supports belief in Satanic ritual abuse (SRA). The effects of SRA survivor stories and the importance of historical perspective on the SRA phenomenon are discussed. Biblical and common sense principles are enunciated for the sorting out of truth from untruth in relation to SRA sensationalism.

Pence, Donna. “Investigating macro cases.” The APSAC Advisor, 2(4) 1989 pp. 5-7, p.14.
Discussion of multidisciplinary investigations in mass molestation cases.

Pepinsky, Hal. “A struggle to inquire without becoming an un-critical non-criminologist.”  Critical Criminology  11(1) 2002  pp.61-73.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The author regards his primary research informants as those he believes to be survivors of so-called intergenerational ritual abuse, among them being those who were involved in government-sponsored programming and experimentation in mind control. The first part of this paper provides some background on how the author became involved with survivors of ritual abuse and the types of experiences they have described. This is followed by a comparative analysis of the validity of research data from informants researchers have never met and the validity of data the author obtained directly from victims and survivors of sexual assault. The next section of the paper discusses some important issues for critical criminology and peacemaking in the face of extreme violence. Survivors of such violence are rarely encountered in the daily work of most criminologists, so the author acknowledges that this puts his involvement with and belief in the victimization accounts of these survivors at risk of skepticism and criticisms of research bias. The author believes that in working directly with victims as a source of research information, his objectivity as a criminologist is not compromised. He notes that he feels at once enlightened by the marginal voices of a relatively small segment of victims and cautious about weighing evidence in support of and in rejection of their accounts of their victimization.

Pepinsky, Hal. “Sharing and responding to memories.”   American Behavioral Scientist  48(10) June 2005 pp.1360-1374.

Perlman, S. D. “One analyst’s journey into darkness: Countertransference resistance to recognizing sexual abuse, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorders.” J Am Acad Psychoanal 23(1) 1995 pp.137-51.

Perrin, Robin D. and Parrott, Les. “Memories of Satanic ritual abuse: The truth behind the panic.” Christianity Today 37(7) 1993 pp.18-23.
Christians and therapists are divided over whether to believe Satanic cults ritually abused thousands of women who claim to have discovered memories of abuse while in therapy. The complete lack of physical evidence and exploitation by the media are discussed.

Peter, Tracey. “Speaking about the unspeakable.” Violence Against Women 14(9) 2008 1033-53.

Peters, Ted, “Satanism: Bunk or blasphemy?” Theology Today 51(3) 1994 p.381.
The question of the nature of Satanism involves different types of it. There is the social phenomenon, the public Satanism, the isolated teenager, the serial killer and multiple personality disorder to consider. Some Satanism is not nonsense but genuine blasphemy. It is the most radical type of evil since it offends God while it is the pursuit of evil for the sake of evil.

Petrus, T. S. “Ritual crime: Anthropological considerations and contributions to a new field of study.” Acta Criminologica 20(2) 2007 pp.119-37.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The investigation of ritual crime has a great deal of potential for the discipline of anthropology because, as was indicated, there are various ways in which anthropologists can contribute to a greater understanding of ritual crime. Anthropological investigations into this phenomenon expose cross-cultural differences in ideas of rationalism, while they attempt to place the religious beliefs of communities in their specific contexts. This was found to be important, not only within the context of increased multiculturalism and religious pluralism, but it is also relevant within the context of legal and community development, where it becomes clear that local communities have their own systems of law and justice and procedures of how to deal with ritual crimes as defined by these communities. However, because these communities do not exist in isolation, it is also evident that legislation and policies on ritual crime have to be sensitive to and acknowledge the belief systems of these communities. Anthropologists need to acknowledge ritual crime’s existence as a reality. The Western criminal justice system is uncertain on how to handle ritual crimes. When murder and abuse become ritual murder and ritual abuse, the framework of legislation becomes less adequate and incapable of providing the necessary information to assist the justice system in defining, investigating, and prosecuting such crime, as well as the definition of crime itself becomes more complicated. This paper attempts to show that while the issue of ritual crime is controversial, the phenomenon does indeed exist and manifests itself in various ways. Its existence is a fact because it forms part of the religious beliefs of many communities. This paper argues that anthropology could possibly play an important role in initiating steps to provide knowledge that is necessary for a more informed and a more open-minded perspective on ritual crime.

Pike, Patricia L. and Mohline, Richard J. “Ritual abuse and recovery: Survivors’ personal accounts.”  J Psychology & Theology 23(1) Spring 1995 pp. 45-55.

Pilant, Lois . “Ritualistic crime: Are we dealing with the devil?” State Peace Officers J 1990 pp.41-7, p.91.

Pithers, David. “Ritual abuse: Stranger than fiction.” Social Work Today, 4(10) pp.20-1
Article in British journal describes Satanists as having an “almost Faustian fatalism.”

Pitchers, David. “Ritual abuse: Stranger than fiction.” Social Work Today 22(6) 1990 p.20.

Putnam, F. W. “The Satanic ritual abuse controversy.” Child Abuse and Neglect 15(3) 1991 pp. 175-9.
Despite a large degree of support within the child abuse community for the theory that an international conspiracy practicing ritualistic crimes including child sexual abuse exists, there is a complete absence of independent evidence corroborating the existence of these cults and their alleged activities.  Several papers delivered at professional meetings and trainings have presented allegations made by adults who claim to have experienced Satanic ritual abuse in childhood and allegations made by children claiming to be currently or recently involved in such activities. The author maintains that there is little actual data in these papers and notes the underlying beliefs of the authors and the lack of a comparison group to analyze symptoms and behaviors associated with Satanic ritual abuse to refute their claims.  The picture of the alleged cults that emerges is highly unbelievable from the perspectives both of therapists and law enforcement. The explanation of these unproven claims probably lies in a complex set of dynamics operating in the child abuse community; this issue must be resolved through the use of objective and scientific techniques.

Precin, Pat J. and Precin, Patricia. Return to work: A case of PTSD, Dissociative Identity Disorder, and Satanic ritual abuse. Work 38(1) 2011 pp.57-66.
This case study investigated an intervention that enabled an individual with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), and Satanic ritual abuse to return to work after discharge from psychiatric inpatient treatment. The Occupational Questionnaire [88] revealed past difficulties in organization, awareness of time, communication, cooperation, frustration tolerance, competition, stress management, goal setting, and amnesia resulting in incomplete tasks and sporadic attendance at work. The Role Checklist [72] identified alters valuing work and employed in the past. The Modified Interest Checklist [70] identified running as an interest that 24 alters shared. Based on the initial evaluations, three times a week treadmill running was used as an intervention that built work skills (as measured by the Clerical Work Sample of the Valpar Component Work Sample Series [97]) necessary to sustain gainful employment upon discharge. After intervention, this individual improved in awareness of time, stress management, and goal setting abilities and was less amnestic as per the Occupational Questionnaire [88] and four additional alters expressed an interest in work according to the Modified Interest Checklist [70].




Remesch-Allnutt, K. “Cults: Organized, armed and protected by the first amendment,” Police Product News Oct 1985.
This article discusses various cults, their practices, histories, and criminal activities.

Richardson, James T. “The social construction of Satanism: Understanding an international social problem.” Australian J Social Issues 32(1) 1997 p.61.

Richardson, James T., Jenny Reichert, Jenny and Lykes, Valerie. “Satanism in America: An update.” Social Compass 56(4) 2009 pp.552-63.

Robinson, Amy L., Koester, Glenn A., and Kaufman, Arthur. “Striae vs. scars of ritual abuse in a male adolescent.” Archives of Family Medicine 3(5) 1994 pp.398-9.

Rockwell, Robert B. “One psychiatrist’s view of Satanic ritual abuse.” Special Issue: Cult abuse of children: Witch hunt or reality? Psychohistory 21(4) 1994 pp.443-60.
Reports on the evolution of the author’s awareness of ritual cult abuse (RCA). The author’s experiences with patients suffering from RCA are detailed, and it is stressed that these revelations of RCA are credible and were not suggested under hypnosis. The “False Memory Syndrome” is suggested to be a sham invented by pedophiles and sexual abusers for the media. D. Lotto’s paper (see PA 81:41457) suggesting that RCA abuse is a modern “witch hunt” is refuted; 12 cases of successful prosecution of RCA are presented. It is suggested that the methods employed by cults are designed not just for sadomasochistic pleasure but for producing people with programmable multiple personalities.

Rockwell, Robert B. “Insidious deception.” Psychohistory 22(3) 1995 pp.312-28.
Contends that there is massive resistance to awareness of physical, sexual, and ritualistic abuse of children in US society. L. Wright’s (1994) recounting of the story of Paul Ingram is used as an example of how the public is mislead into thinking that Satanic ritual abuse does not exist. Media distortions and interference are used to filter the facts and to produce doubts. The expertise of authorities in the false memory syndrome movement is questioned. The campaign to attack therapists in the field through legal channels is reviewed. It is argued that perpetrators of abuse and organized Satanic movements exert control over law enforcement, legal processes, and the media to distort the facts of Satanic ritual abuse.

Rogers, Martha L, ed. “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of

Rogers, Martha L. “A call for discernment -- natural and spiritual: An introductory editorial to a special issue on SRA.” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. Psychology and Theology, 20(3)  1992 pp.257-9.
Discusses research on Satanic ritual abuse (SRA). SRA is defined, a Christian perspective to the topic is introduced, and the need is expressed to look hard at the clinical data and research findings. The issues discussed include whether religious perspective has an impact on an individual’s beliefs or judgments about abuse and whether Christians are dealing effectively with the reality of abuse in their own communities.

Rogers, Martha L. “The Oude Pekela incident: A case study of alleged SRA from the Netherlands.” Psychology and Theology, 20(3) 1992 pp.257-59.
Describes a case of alleged Satanic ritualistic abuse that occurred during mid-1987 in the small village of Oude Pekela in the Netherlands. Data are presented from accounts taken from (1) a published report by 2 professionals involved at the time of the incident, (2) a report of the incident incorporated in a doctorandus degree thesis, and (3) professional commentary and reactions to this material.

Roney-Wilson, Kathleen. “Healing survivors of Satanic ritual abuse.” Christian Healing, 12(1) 1990 pp.9-12.
Addresses spiritual issues raised by ritual abuse, with recommendations for pastoral counseling.

Rosik, Christopher H. “Conversations with an internal self helper.” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. Psychology and Theology, 20(3) 1992 pp.217-23.
Introduces the internal self-helper (ISH) concept and suggests that the ISH has been observed in many persons with multiple personality disorder. Experiences in therapy with an ISH are presented for illustration. Focus is given to the ISH’s self-reported nature and function, the dynamics of working with an ISH in therapy, and some initial guidelines for relating this and other apparent paranormal phenomena to the Christian world. A case is presented to describe the ISH encountered in treatment of a young woman with a 15-yr history of multiple sexual molestations beginning at age 4 yrs.

Rosik, Christopher H. “Satanic ritual abuse: A response to featured articles by Shaffer and Cozolino, Gould and Cozolino, and Friesen.” Psychology and Theology, 20(3) 1992 pp.213-6.
Comments on 3 articles by R. E. Shaffer and L. J. Cozolino (see PA 80:18563), C. Gould and Cozolino (see PA 80:18534) and J. G. Friesen (see PA  80:18528) and 1 review of these articles by G. K. Ganaway (see PA  80:18530) concerning Satanic ritual abuse (SRA).
Topics addressed include the value and limits of an “oppressive supernatural states disorder,” different models of spiritual warfare, related ethical concerns, the possibility of cult-created alters, and the veracity of patients’ SRA reports. A rationale is presented for professional dialog between divergent perspectives of SRA.

Rosik, Christopher H. “Some effects of world view on the theory and treatment of dissociative identity disorder.”  J Psychology and Christianity 19(2) Summer 2000 Special issue: “Dissociative Identity Disorder.” pp.166-180.

Ross, Colin A., Anderson, G., Fleisher, W. P. and Norton, G. R. “Dissociative experiences among psychiatric inpatients.” General Hospital Psychiatry 14 1992 pp.350-4.

Rossen, Benjamin. “Response to the Oude Pekela incident and the accusations of Drs. F. Jonker and P.. Jonker-Bakker.” Special issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.263-6.
Responds to the attacks by F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker (see PA, 80:17918) on B. Rossen’s personal character and on the quality of his 1989 doctoral thesis regarding the alleged Satanic ritual abuse incident in the village of Oude Pekela, Netherlands.


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