Safety Notice

If you are a survivor, please be careful in reading the information compiled here. It is impossible to give information on ritual abuse, and about people's opinions about ritual abuse, in a way that is not upsetting and/or triggering. Only you know how much is wise to read, and how much information you can absorb at one time.

Journal Articles, by Author,  H to L


Hall, Zaida M. “Facing the pain of the memories.” Clinical Psychology Forum 62 Dec.1993 p.14.
This brief commentary reports on personal reactions of the psychiatrist during treatment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
KEY WORDS: Adults; British - Child Abuse ;Commentary - Incest - Psychotherapeutic Processes - Rape - Ritual Abuse - Survivors - Torture

Hall, Joanne M. ”Dissociative experiences of women child abuse survivors: A selective constructivist review.” Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 4(4)  Oct 2003  pp.283-308.
Dissociation is defined as significant discontinuity in awareness, perceptions, bodily sensations, and/or memory that is self-reported, meets psychiatric diagnostic criteria for a dissociative disorder, or is so delineated as a result of psychological measurements. The focus of this literature is on women’s dissociative experiences occurring in the aftermath of childhood abuse. The review begins with assumptions that dissociation is a real phenomenon, having multiple manifestations, but is also a social construct with such constructs applied distinctly across gender. The review is feminist in that it is focused on the ways that clinicians talk about dissociation and act on these ideas, such that they affect the day-to-day lives of women survivors of child abuse. The review begins with a brief history on the concept of dissociation and then proceeds covering the areas of measuring dissociation and its incidence in childhood abuse cases; types of dissociative experience and consequences for women abuse survivors; multiple personalities and childhood abuse; false memories, dissociation, and childhood abuse; dissociation and religious/ritual abuse; dissociation and the body, physiology of dissociation and trauma; self-harm, abuse, and dissociation; the language and practices of treatment, dissociation; and revictimization; and pathology and/or protections. The review points toward four key realizations about women child abuse survivors. First, when women volitionally do not pay attention to traumatic material, this is not dissociation. Secondly, when dissociation is not problematic, it can be normalized. Thirdly, when problems related to but not caused by dissociation occur, both components need attention, and lastly, when dissociation itself is interfering with life’s purposes and pleasures, women need to receive treatment that preserves their autonomy, credibility, and interests. This review was based on the theory that the avoidance of painful material is at the base of dissociative experiences, yet, if not for the ability to compartmentalize overwhelming stress, such as childhood abuse, the woman survivor could not psychologically carry the realities of the trauma with her until such a time as these “demons” can be released and tamed. Dissociation may be more generally understood as a way to remember versus a way to forget.

Halperin, David A. “The appeal of the impossible and the efflorescence of the unbelievable: A psychoanalytic perspective on cults and occultism.” Cultic Studies J 9(2) 1992 pp.190-205.
Presents a psychoanalytic perspective on the appeal of cults and occultism to adolescents. Writers (e.g., A. Crowley and A. Machen) whose work has contributed to the formation of occult and Satanic groups, and motion pictures (e.g., Beetlejuice ) with occult themes are discussed. The relationship between adolescent suicide and films of the occult is explored. Case examples of 2 psychiatric patients (aged 16 and 19 yrs.) are presented as illustrative.

Harper, Jane. “Ritual abuse work.” Social Work Today 23(16) 1991 p.20.

Harper, Jane. “What about the wounded?” Social Work Today Dec 12 1991.
British staff care consultant comments on the mirroring effects on social workers helping ritually abused children in the Hillsborough case.

Harvey, M. R., and Herman, J., L. “Amnesia, partial amnesia and delayed recall among adult survivors of childhood trauma.” Consciousness and Cognition 3 1994 pp.295-306.

Hayward, J. “Ritual abuse: Trial and error.” Criminologist: Chichester 21(1) 1995 pp.3-25.

Heathcote, H., Gmeiner, A., Poggenpoel, M. “Adolessente betrokke by Satanisme: wat geestesgesondheidsprobleme ondervind. (Adolescents previously involved in Satanism: mental health problems experienced)” Curationis 21(1) 1998 pp.2-7.
As far as the phenomena of adolescents previously involved with Satanism that experience obstacles in the strive for mental health, no research has previously been done. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism, presents behavior problems like aggressive outbursts depression, ‘psychosis,’ or suicide attempts that can even lead to suicide. In the phenomena-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews with the respondents and their parents, were performed. The respondents were requested to write a naive sketch about there life. After the data-control was done, guidelines for nursing staff had been set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents that has previously been involved in Satanism, and experiences obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in Satanism was done, literature in the form of books, magazines and newsclippings were used to verify the findings in the research. The most important guidelines are that: the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show, any fear or sympathy; they have to have sufficient knowledge about Satanism; the adolescent has to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team; the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions.

Hempling, Stephen\ “Ritual abuse or more?” Child Abuse Review, 1991 5(1).
Article by a British police surgeon; includes references to Aleister Crowley’s precepts.

Hill, Jeanne. “Believing Rachel.” J Psychohistory 24(2) 1996 pp.132-46.
A mother’s account of child’s ritual abuse disclosures.

Hill, Sally. “Satanism: Similarities between patient accounts and pre-Inquisition historical sources,” Dissociation 2(1) 1989 pp.39-44.
Describes Satanic rituals (SRs) drawn by historians from pre-Inquisition primary sources to offer the possibility that patients who describe fragmentary flashback-like scenes of participation in SRs may not be delusional but may be describing fragmented or partially dissociated memories of actual events. As early as the 4th century elements of a Satanic mass were well described; extending the historical search from 400 to 1200 A.D. yields only a few new elements including the ritual use of drugs, the circle, and ritual dismemberment of corpses. Two clinical accounts of SRs are compared with historical accounts. The possibility that a patient had experienced actual involvement in some bizarre and abusive ritual is suggested as a possible viewpoint to be explored in the therapeutic unraveling of such material.

Hill, Sally and Goodwin, Jean R. “Demonic possession as a consequence of childhood trauma.” J Psychohistory, 20(4) 1993 pp.399-411.
In this chapter, we compare Freud’s understanding of a seventeenth-century case of demon possession and exorcism with a modern case of a patient who had been involved in a Satanic cult and had experienced demon possession, and who sought out exorcism as well as psychotherapy.
NOTE: This article is taken from Sally Hill and Jean M. Goodwin, “Freud’s notes on a seventeenth-century case of demonic possession: understanding the uses of exorcism,” in Rediscovering childhood trauma: Historical casebook and clinical applications, edited by Jean M. Goodwin, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, D.C., 1993 pp.45-63.

Hines, Terence. “On ritual abuse.” PsycCRITIQUES 39(12) 1994.

Hochman, J. “Miracle, mystery, and authority: The triangle of cult indoctrination,” Psychiatric Annals 20(4) 1990 pp.179-84, p.187.;

Hodges, Stan H. "A historical and theoretical look at ritual abuse laws from an integrative conflict perspective." Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology. 36(1) 2008 p.27.

Hoier, Tamara S. “The course of treatment of a sexually abused child: A single-case study.” Behavioral Assessment 13(4) 1991  pp.385-98.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Idiographic assessment of an 8-year-old victim of long term and bizarre sexual abuse is described. Ongoing, multimethod assessment highlights the relative utility of molar and molecular measures of distress in such cases. Patterns of recovery and identification of antecedents to distress over the course of treatment are described. Data-based clinical decision-making, stages of treatment of trauma in complex cases, and refinement of treatment based on ongoing assessment data such as daily ratings are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Behavior Therapy - Case Report - Incest ;Males - Ritual Abuse - School Age Children - Survivors

Hopkins, Jeff . “Moving in a world of shadows.” Social Work Today. Oct 26 1989 p. 17.
Explores staff responses to and professional ramifications of confronting child sex networks.

Hopkins, Jeff. “Ritual abuse evidence.” Social Work 23(8) 1991 p.21.

Hopkins, Jeff. “Trial and error.” Social Work Today. Oct 1991 p.17.
British author lists five areas in which therapists can prepare for court testimony in trials involving allegations of ritual child abuse.

Hudson, Pamela S. “Ritual child abuse: A survey of symptoms and allegations,” In “The shadow of Satan, The ritual abuse of children.” J Child And Youth Care Special Issue 1990, pp.27-53.
Conducted a telephone survey in April, 1988, regarding 24 abused children (aged 18 mo.--3.5 yrs at the time of abuse) to formulate a list of symptoms and allegations most frequently noted by ritual-abuse survivors. Ss presented with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as indicated by severe separation anxiety, fear of starting school, avoidance of their own bed, refusal to sleep alone, and fear of the dark. Ss spoke of being sexually molested by adult strangers or day-care workers, being threatened with murder if they revealed the abuse, and being photographed during the abuse. All Ss had medical findings commensurate with sexual assault. Other ritual-abuse survivors interviewed include adult survivors forming their own organizations and teenagers involved with the occult and Satanism. A ritual child abuse questionnaire is app ended.

Hunt, Patricia and Margaret Baird (1990). “Children of sex rings.” Child Welfare 69(3) pp.195-207.
Addresses differences between single- and multiple-offender sexual abuse victims.



Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, H., Shawchuck, C. R., and Hoier, T. S. “Behavioral characteristics of child victims of sexual abuse: A comparison study.” Clinical Child Psychology 21 1992 pp.14-9.

Ireland, Sharon J.; Ireland, Murray J. “A case history of family and cult abuse.”  J Psychohistory, 21(4) Spring 1994. Special issue: “Cult abuse of children: Witch hunt or reality?” pp.417-28.

Ivey, Gavin. “Psychodynamic aspects of demonic possession and Satanic worship” S African J Psychology, 23(4) 1993, pp.186-94.
Develops an object relations psychoanalytic model of both involuntary demonic possession (DP) and voluntary Satanic ritual participation. A case study of a man involved in Satanic activities is used to advance the idea that the internalization of a bad paternal object constitutes the developmental nucleus of DP. The intrusive return of the projected bad object relation gives rise to the experience of DP. In voluntary Satanic worship, however, a different dynamic involving the individual’s identification with the bad object suggests itself. The unconscious motivation for this identification arises from the child’s experience of vulnerability and powerlessness at the hands of the persecutory parent. Identification with this bad object, symbolized by Satan, gives the individual a sense of personal power and control over his/her life. Satanic involvement thus compensates for the original childhood narcissistic injury. (Afrikaans abstract).

Ivey, Gavin. “The psychology of Satanic worship.” S African J Psychology 23(4) Dec 1993 pp.180-5.
Addresses the allegations of widespread Satanic activity in South Africa by defining the concepts of demonic possession and Satanism, tracing its history, locating the sociological context of its movement, and discussing the factors predisposing individuals to Satanic involvement. It is argued that the apparent increase in Satanic activity is related to a socioeconomic context of radical cultural change, turmoil, and social instability. Contemporary White adolescents, feeling alienated, anxious, and powerless, are attracted to Satanism as a means of obtaining magical power and control over their destiny. Other predisposing factors include low self-esteem, lack of cohesive identity, drug abuse, and pathogenic familial interaction. Satanism also meets specific psychological needs that are not met by other forms of religious worship. The diagnostic status of demonic possession in clinical psychology is examined. (Afrikaans abstract).



Jenkins, Carol A. “Sociological argument applied to a historical example of deviance: A response to Professor Victor.” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, “Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.254-6.
Analyzes and critiques J. S. Victor’s (see PA 80:17962) application of a sociological argument to the 1988 Satanic abuse scare in Rochdale, England. Questions relate to why the religious collectivity in Rochdale assigned Satanic ritual abuse behavior to a “deviant” category. Victor’s failure to suggest the range of alternative theoretical paradigms used to explain collective behavior and the linkages that exist between ideology, social action, and collective response is criticized.

Johnson, Charles F. (1990). “Inflicted injury versus accidental injury.” Pediatric Clinics of North America 37(4) pp.791-814.
Addresses medical indicators of physical child abuse; includes section on ritualistic child abuse.

Johnson, Matt. “Fear and power: From naivete to a believer in cult abuse.” J Psychohistory 21(4) Spring 1994  pp.435-41. 
Based on personal experience, the author submits 15 recommendations to fellow professionals who are involved in treating survivors of ritual cult abuse.  

Jones, David P. “Ritualism and child sexual abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect 15(3) 1991 pp.163-70.
Discusses aspects of ritualism and child sexual abuse (CSA) by examining attempts to investigate cases; the issue of credibility; and suggestions for practice, policy, and research. Most cases of CSA include an element of psychological abuse. It is argued that the terms “ritualistic abuse” and “Satanic abuse” be dispensed with because most CSA involves ritual practice and therefore use of these terms may be misleading and inflammatory.

Jones, David P. “Commentary:  Ritualism and child sexual abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect 15(3)1991.  

Jones, David P. “What do children know about religion and Satanism?” Child Abuse and Neglect 21(11) 1997 pp.1109-10.

Jonker, F. and Jonker-Bakker, P. ‘Effects of ritual abuse: The results of three surveys in The Netherlands.” Child Abuse and Neglect 21(6) 1997 pp.541-56.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: We decided to document the behavior of 87 children involved in multiple victim/multiple perpetrator sexual abuse by developing and administering surveys to families. Data gathered at 2 1/2 years(1990) and 7 years (1994) after the disclosures indicated the behavioral status of the children at different developmental stages. This data was compared to clinical information available prior to the abuse, and initial survey data rendered at 6 weeks after disclosure (Jonker and Jonker-Bakker, 1991). The objective was to document the behavior of the victims during the healing process. A questionnaire was sent to the parents of 87 children who were abused in 1987. The parents returned the completed questionnaire, and were interviewed in our clinic. Data from the 1990 and 1994 surveys indicate that 39% of the children involved, who lived in supportive family environments, had changed as a result of the abuse. They exhibited behavior within acceptable, normal guidelines for childhood development. In 1994, 7% of the children involved showed signs of more severe behavioral disorders. The findings indicate that physical and behavioral signs apparent in the 1990 and 1994 surveys were not recognized at the time the abuse occurred. Many of the children exhibit normal, acceptable behavior at the time of the most recent survey (1994).  

Jonker, Fred. “Reaction to Benjamin Rossen’s investigation of Satanic ritual abuse in Oude Pekela,” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge.” Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.260-2.
Responds to B. Rossen’s (1989) criticisms of F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker’s (see PA 78:24598) handling of an alleged Satanic ritual abuse incident in Oude Pekela. This response criticizes the quality of Rossen’s scientific work, especially in respect to his judgments made without having had direct contact with the children, their parents, or other principals in the incident.

Jonker, Fred. “Safe behind the screen of ‘mass hysteria:’ A closing rejoinder to Benjamin Rossen.” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge.” Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.267-70.
Expresses concern with continuing myths about the Oude Pekela incident of alleged Satanic ritual abuse, which may be derived from and perpetuated by the misconceived and factually inaccurate allegations of B. Rossen (1989; see also PA 80:17946). F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker indicate that they chose to believe the children involved in the Oude Pekela incident while Rossen did not and attributed the whole incident to “mass hysteria.” Jonker and Jonker-Bakker stress their customary level of objectivity and professionalism as physicians and scientists.

Jonker, Fred, and Jonker-Bakker, P. “Experiences with ritualist child sexual abuse: A case study from the Netherlands,” Child Abuse and Neglect 15(3) 1991 pp.191-6.
This article examines child sexual abuse cases in northeastern Holland.

Jonker, Korbus. “The identification and understanding of occult practices relevant to child abuse: Review letter.” Child Abuse Research in South Africa, 2(2) 2001 pp.30-4.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: This article covers a topic on which very little has been written in professional circles. It describes the types of occult abuse of children and the signs of ritual abuse which can surface as various types of symptoms in a variety of areas. The article goes on to discuss the obstacles to treatment posed by the secrecy that pervades the phenomenon and the resultant lack of professional insight into the true nature of the problems experienced by the child. Jons, D. P. H. “Ritualism and child sexual abuse,” Child Abuse and Neglect 15, 1991 Juhasz, Susan “Coping skills of ritual abuse survivors: An exploratory study.” Smith College Studies in Social Work 65(3) 1995 pp.255-67.



Kam, Katherine. “Ritual killings have Satanic overtones.” Christianity Today 32 1988 pp.52-4.

Kelley, Susan J. “Parental stress response to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers.” Nursing Research 39(1) 1990 pp.25-9.
The purpose of this study was to examine the stress responses of parents to the sexual and ritualistic abuse of their children in day-care centers. Sixty-five mothers and 46 fathers of children sexually abused in day-care centers completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a measure of psychological distress. These scores were compared with a carefully matched comparison group of parents of 67 nonabused children. Parents of abused children also completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure which indexes symptoms that characterize posttraumatic stress disorder. Parents of sexually abused children reported significantly more psychological distress than parents of nonabused children, with parents of ritually abused children displaying the most severe psychological distress. Parents of abused children reported symptom profiles on the SCL-90-R and IES consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Kelley, Susan J. “Stress Responses of Children to Sexual Abuse and Ritualistic Abuse in Day Care Centers.” J Interpersonal Violence 4(4) 1988 pp.502-13.
Examined the effects of sexual abuse (SA) and ritualistic abuse (RA) of children in day care settings. 32 4-8 yr. old SA Ss were compared with 35 ritually abused and 67 nonabused (non-A) 4-11 yr. old Ss on the Child Behavior Checklist, the SCL-90, and an impact of event scale. SA Ss had significantly more behavior problems than did the non-A Ss. Sexual abuse involving RA (i.e., repetitive and systematic sexual, physical, and psychological abuse of children by adults as part of cult or Satanic worship) was associated with increased severity in the extent of the sexual, physical, and psychological abuse experienced.

Kelley, Susan J. (1988). “Ritualistic abuse: Dynamics and impact.” Cultic Studies J 5(2) pp.228-36.
Examines the nature and impact of ritualistic abuse (RA) of children, focusing on cult-based RA. RA refers to repetitive and systematic sexual, physical, and psychological abuse of children by adults as part of cult or Satanic worship. It is noted that RA may be either intra- or extrafamilial. As a result of RA, victimized children experience persistent psychological disturbances. Implications of RA for practice, policy, and research are discussed.

Kelly, Liz and Sara Scott. “The current literature about organized abuse of children.” Child Abuse Review, 2, 1993 pp.281-7.
Review of literature on organized abuse, child pornography and prostitution, pedophile networks and ritual abuse.

Kelly, Liz. “The extent and nature of organised and ritual abuse -- DOH report reviewed.” Childright No. 111 November, 1994.
British child abuse expert questions the conclusions of Professor Jean La Fontaine’s government-funded study.

Kelly, Paul. “Satanism and vulnerable adolescents,” Pastoral Counseling 25 1990 pp.101-10.

Kenny, Michael. “Setting a wolf to catch a wolf: Psychiatry, Satanism, and the anti-cult movement.” Transcultural Psychiatry 37(4) Dec 2000 p.601.

Kent, Stephen A. “Deviant scripturalism and ritual Satanic abuse: Part one: Possible Judeo-Christian influences (part 1)” Religion 23(3) 1993 p.229-41.
Intergenerational Satanism is rejected by some as unrealistic and in the imagination of perverted minds. Religious texts and traditions are overlooked as possible sources for the development of Satanic rituals. A major reason for the accounts of the survivors of these experiences failing to attain credibility is that the experiences seem divorced from everyday life.

Kent, Stephen A. “Deviant scripturalism and ritual Satanic abuse: Part two: Possible Masonic, Mormon, magick and pagan influences.” Religion 23(4) 1993 p.355.
A comparison of the accounts of people who have survived ritual Satanic abuse experiences, with doctrinal precedents for Satanic ritual abuse in deviant forms of Masonic, Mormon, magick and pagan cultures, reveals that Satanists such as Aleister Crowley and Albert Pike were inspired by these cultures. Crowley’s rituals demonstrate his obsession with sex. Bodies, videos of rituals, ritual books and artifacts are necessary to supplement the identification of the sources of these rituals.

Kent, Stephen.  “Diabolic debates: A reply to David Frankfurter and J. S. La Fontaine.” Religion 24 1994 pp.135-88.

King, G. F.and Yorker, B. “Case studies of children presenting with a history of ritualistic abuse.” J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 9(2) 1996 pp.18-26.
Ritualistic child abuse is an alarming and controversial problem. Child psychiatric nurses need to increase their awareness of the clinical picture associated with this specific form of abuse. This article reviews the literature to date on ritualistic child abuse and addresses the controversy surrounding the phenomena. A small research project using historical data collection methods reviewed hospital records of children with a documented history of ritualistic abuse. Results are organized into clusters of linked interrelated characteristics. The symptom characteristics of these children revealed medical/somatic symptoms, distortion of self- concept and world view, and a variety of emotional disturbances. The findings of this study are presented with implications for nurses who care for clients with a history of ritualistic abuse

Kluft, Richard P. “Various interventions in the treatment of multiple personality disorder.” Am J Clinical Hypnosis 24 1982 pp.230-40.

Kluft, Richard P. “The phenomology and treatment of extremely complex multiple personality disorder.” Dissociation 1(4) 1988.

Kluft, Richard P. (1989). “Reflections on allegations of ritual abuse.” Dissociation 2(4) pp.191-3.
Editorial on ritual abuse and the historical context of man’s inhumanity to man.

Kohn, A. A. "Underlying assumptions in the work of mental health professionals on ritual abuse." Clinical Psychology Forum 69 1994 p.19.

Kourt, Franklin J. “Ritual child abuse and Satanic cults: A growing menace.” Illinois Medicine Nov10 1989 pp 8-9.
Includes interviews with mental health and law enforcement professionals.



Ladd, Jennifer. “Logotherapy’s place for the ritually abused.” International Forum for Logotherapy 14(2) 1991 pp.82-6.
Provides a personal account from an adult survivor of ritual Satanic abuse and incest during childhood. The author discusses how exposure to logotherapy and logophilosophy strengthened her will to follow and enjoy her life goals.

La Fontaine, J. S. “Defining organized sexual abuse.” Child Abuse Review 2(4) Dec 1993  pp.223-31.
Proposes a definition for “organized sexual abuse” and makes distinctions between organized abuse, ritual abuse, and child prostitution and pornography.

LaFontaine, J. S. “Allegations of sexual abuse in Satanic rituals.” (response to article by Stephen Kent in 23(3/4) p. 229 and p. 355). Religion 24(2) 1994 pp.181-4.
Stephen Kent’s views on Satanic abuse are based on unsound premises and lacks objectivity. His claim that only a believer who has experienced faith can understand religion destroys the legitimacy of all academic discussions. Kent arrives at conclusions without evaluating the authenticity of data. The article relies on conclusions derived from questionable data.

Lacter, Ellen and  K Lehman, K. Guidelines to diagnosis of ritual abuse/mind control traumatic stress. Attachment 2(2) 2008 pp.159-81.

Lamb, Nancy and Bill Hart. “Pointers on multi-victim, multi-perpetrator cases.” American Prosecutors Research Institute 1992.
Attorneys who prosecuted Little Rascals case offer advice regarding mass molestation cases.

Lanning, Kenneth V. “Ritual abuse: A law enforcement view or perspective.” Child Abuse and Neglect 15 1991 pp.171-3.
Argues that the use of the terms “ritualistic” and “Satanic” in discussing the abuse of children is confusing, misleading, and counterproductive. If the guilty are to be successfully prosecuted, the innocent exonerated, and the victims protected and treated, better methods to evaluate and explain allegations of ritualistic child abuse must be developed.

Lanning, Kenneth V. “Satanic, occult, ritualistic crime: A law enforcement perspective.” The Police Chief 56(10) 1989 p.62.
Argues that the use of the terms “ritualistic” and “Satanic” in discussing the abuse of children is confusing, misleading, and counterproductive. If the guilty are to be successfully prosecuted, the innocent exonerated, and the victims protected and treated, better methods to evaluate and explain allegations of ritualistic child abuse must be developed.

Larkin, Marilynn. “Elaine Showalter: Hysteria’s historian.” Lancet 351(9116) 05/30/98 p.1638.

Laterz, J., and Borden, T. ”Mother/daughter incest and ritual abuse: The ultimate taboos.” Treating Abuse Today 3(4) 1993 pp.5-8.

Lawrence, Kathy J., Cozolino, Louis J. and Foy, David W. “Psychological sequelae in adult females reporting childhood ritualistic abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect 19(8), 1995 pp.975-84.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The present study sought to increase current scientific knowledge about the controversial issue of subjectively reported childhood ritualistic abuse by addressing several key unresolved issues. In particular, the possibility that those reporting ritualistic abuse may be characterized primarily by the severity of their abuse histories or the severity of their present psychological symptoms, rather than the veridicality of the ritualistic events, was explored. Adult female outpatients reporting childhood sexual abuse with ritualistic features were compared with a second group of women who reported childhood sexual abuse without ritualism. Measures included characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse, current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status and symptom severity, and severity of current dissociative experiences. Women reporting ritualistic features scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neither PTSD diagnostic status nor severity for PTSD nor dissociative experiences were significantly different between the groups. While preliminary in nature, these results suggest that it may be helpful to conceptualize reported childhood ritualistic abuse as indicative of the need to assess carefully for severe abuse and its predictable sequelae within existing traumatic victimization conceptual frameworks.

Leavitt, Frank, Labott, Susan M. “The role of media and hospital exposure on Rorschach response patterns by patients reporting Satanic ritual abuse.”  American J Forensic Psychology 18(2) 2000 pp.35-55.

Leavitt Frank. And  Labott, Susan M. “Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting Satanic ritual abuse in childhood.” J Clin Psychol 54(7) 1998 pp.933-43.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: A growing number of psychiatric patients report Satanic ritual abuse, prompting research into this controversial area. In the current study, the Word Association Test (WAT) was modified to assess experience with Satanic abuse. Pilot work resulted in norms for two domains: normative and Satanic. Female psychiatric patients were compared on their associations in two studies. Based on a sexual history, they were grouped into those reporting sexual abuse, those reporting Satanic ritual abuse (SRA), and those without a history of sexual abuse (controls). In both studies, SRA patients gave significantly more total associations, significantly fewer normative associations, and significantly more Satanic associations than did the other two groups. These results suggest that an experience base is shared by individuals reporting SRA that is not found in individuals who do not report Satanic abuse (even if they do report sexual abuse). The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of arguments advanced by advocates and critics of SRA.

Leavitt Frank and  Labott, Susan M. “Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting Satanic ritual abuse in childhood.” Violence & Abuse Abstracts 7(3) 2001 pp.163-252

Leavitt, Frank. “Clinical correlates of alleged Satanic abuse and less controversial sexual molestation.” Child Abuse and Neglect 18(4) 1994 pp.387-92.
Examined whether patients who report Satanic ritual abuse (SRA) share symptomatology that differs from symptomatology shown by patients who have suffered other forms of sexual abuse. Measures of general psychopathology and dissociation were administered to 39 patients alleging SRA and to 48 patients alleging less controversial forms of sexual trauma. Ss were women alleging a history of sexual abuse starting prior to the age of 12, involving penetration, and lasting for a period of at least 12 mo. High but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology characterized both patient groups. Key differences were limited to dissociative symptomatology. Patients alleging SRA reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with multiple personality disorders. (French & Spanish abstracts).

Leavitt, Frank. “Measuring the impact of media exposure and hospital treatment on patients alleging Satanic ritual abuse.” Treating Abuse Today 8(4) 1998 pp.7-13.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Reported incidents of Satanic ritual abuse based on recovered memory have become a source of controversy. Some scholars suggest that exposure to (1) media accounts of Satanic ritual abuse or (2) experiences in inpatient hospital settings specializing in the care of patients reporting histories of sexual abuse play a central role in the generation of these memories. The Word Association Test was utilized to determine the impact of these environmental influences on Satanic word association knowledge of patients who report such incidents. These two exposure variables were not found to be significant predictors of Satanic word associations in 43 patients reporting sexual abuse  Paradoxically, less media exposure was associated with significantly higher rates of Satanic word associations in patients reporting Satanic ritual abuse. The production of Satanic word associations was not found to be an artifact of hospital exposure; and word association repertoires of patients with and without histories of Satanic ritual abuse were not found to be contaminated by interactions with hospital staff or other patients. Media and hospital exposure may allow patients to respond conversationally about Satanic abuse, but these variables do not account for unique Satanic word association knowledge found among patients reporting Satanic ritual abuse 

Leavitt, Frank. “False attribution of suggestibility to explain recovered memory of childhood sexual abuse following extended amnesia.” Child Abuse Negl 21(3)1997 pp.265-72.
Suggestibility is central to arguments proffered by critics of recovered memory of childhood sexual abuse who believe that memories involving amnesia are false creations of treatment. The present study represents the first direct investigation of suggestibility among patients who report recovered memory. Suggestibility was measured in 44 patients who recovered memories and in a 31 patient comparison group without a history of sexual trauma using the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Results indicated that patients who recover memories were remarkably less suggestible than the clinical field has been led to believe by advocates of false memory. As a group, they scored low on suggestibility. Recovered Memory patients yielded to suggested prompts an average of 6.7 times per case. This compares to an average of 10.6 in the Psychiatric comparison group. Paradoxically, patients without a history of sex abuse were more at risk for altering memory to suggestive prompts. These findings appreciably challenge advocated theories of suggested memory.

Lewandowski,  Cathleen A. “Comparison of protective service workers’ perceptions of ritual and sexual abuse in children: An exploratory study.” Child Sexual Abuse  4(2) 1995 pp.67-81.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Child protective workers’ perceptions of child sexual abuse were compared with their perceptions of ritual abuse, with emphasis on the type of problem the abuse is for victims, the difficulties encountered when investigating an allegation, treatment and assessment resources available in the community, and definitions of the types of abuse.  Data were collected by a means of a survey distributed to the estimated 80 protective service workers responsible for investigating child abuse allegations in the four major populated areas in Kansas. Twenty-four usable responses were received. Results revealed that the professional community has not reached a consensus on the ritual abuse controversy.  Perceptions reported in the literature range from the presentation of ritual abuse as a serious social problem that is distinctly different from sexual abuse to a consideration of the ritual abuse phenomenon as a multidimensional sexual abuse. For the protective workers in this study, ritual abuse exists and is conceptually different from sexual abuse. Future research could examine the relationship between worker perceptions and the performance of their gatekeeping functions for alleged victims of ritual and sexual abuse.

Lifton, R. J. “Cult formation,” Cultic Studies J 8(1) 1991 pp.1-6.

Lippert, Randy. “The construction of Satanism as a social problem in Canada.” Can J Sociology: Cahiers Canadiens 15(4) 1990 p. 417.

Littlemore, Gordon. “My staff were not to blame.” Social Work Today, 21(3) 1991 p.5.
Former director of Rochdale Social Services defends the actions of British social workers who removed children from homes where ritual abuse was suspected.

Lloyd, David W. “An exploration of our vocabulary: Ritualistic victimization.” Roundtable 2(2) 1990 p.17.
Examines the need for a universally accepted definition of ritual child abuse.

Lloyd, David W. “Learning From the McMartin case.” Roundtable 2(4) 1990 pp.24-5.
Lists 10 strategies for handling multi-victim, multi-perpetrator cases.

Lloyd, David W. “Ritual child abuse: Where do we go from here?” Children’s Legal Rights J 12(1) Winter, 1991 pp.12-8.
The phenomenon of ritualistic child abuse has created a major national controversy since cases have been prosecuted in California, New Jersey, Florida, and other States. The media have publicized opinions ranging from alarm at the possibility of a national conspiracy of groups that abuse children to total disbelief, even when defendants have been convicted of physically and sexually assaulting children. This divergence of views is equally widespread among professionals. Experts in child welfare, mental health, law enforcement, and law disagree about the definition of ritualistic child abuse, how frequently it occurs, and what is known about individuals and groups who commit it. Defining ritualistic child abuse should be a priority, since no adequate definition has evolved that represents a consensus of professionals. Anthropologists and sociologists should carefully review the applicability of existing knowledge about cults and groups that allegedly abuse children. Investigative roles of the police, child protective services, mental health therapists, child care licensing agencies, and prosecutors should be clarified.  States and communities should conduct interagency investigations of “macro” cases, using guidelines such as those developed by the Los Angeles County Inter-Agency Council on Child Abuse or Neglect. A clinical syndrome for forensic evaluation of ritualistic child abuse should be developed, and accounts of adults who claim to have experienced ritualistic abuse as children should be evaluated

Lloyd, David W. “Ritual child abuse: Understanding the controversies.” Cultic Studies J 8(2) 1991 pp.122-33.
Argues that the lack of a clear definition of the term “ritual child abuse” (RCA) may hinder (1) the understanding of the phenomena that are occurring, (2) assessment of the harm to the child, and (3) understanding of the motivation of the abuser. The term “cult-RCA” (often used interchangeably with the preceding term) lacks precision as well. It is unclear how widespread such abuse actually is, and very little is known about cults that ritually abuse children. Nor is there a single symptom or group of symptoms that prove that a child has been the victim of RCA. It is difficult to differentiate between delusions, night terrors, fantasies incorporating fictitious film and video content, and children’s accounts of real events of RCA. Therapists should exercise judgment in evaluating what they see and hear from those who deny the existence of RCA and others who claim it is widespread.

Lloyd, David W. “Ritual child abuse: Definitions and assumptions.” J Child Sexual Abuse 1(3) 1992 pp. 1-14.
Proposes definitions for ritualistic child abuse and cult ritualistic child abuse. The author articulates the questions that must be addressed in determining the scope of the problem and evaluating current assumptions about the issue, as well as questions relating to the credibility of the reports of child and adult victims. The importance of developing a clinical syndrome for forensic evaluation is emphasized. The child protection field must develop better approaches to prevention, investigation, and intervention. Such efforts must be based on the results of careful inquiry into the description, incidence and prevalence, and clinical understanding of this phenomenon, with a parallel effort to create a consensus definition.

Loftus, Elizabeth F. “The reality of repressed memories.” American Psychologist 48(5) May 1993 pp.518-37.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for many years. With recent changes in legislation, people with recently unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for events that happened 20, 30, even 40 or more years earlier. These new developments give rise to a number of questions: (a) how common is it for memories of child abuse to be repressed?  (b) how are jurors and judges likely to react to these repressed memory claims?  (c) when the memories surface, what are they like?  and (d) how authentic are the memories?

Lotto, David J. “On witches and witch hunts: Ritual and Satanic cult abuse.” Special Issue: Cult abuse of children: Witch hunt or reality? J Psychohistory 21(4) 1994 pp.373-96.
Suggests that the recent increase in allegations of ritual cult abuse (RCA) and Satanic ritual abuse is analogous to episodes of witch hunts throughout history. The reliability of hypnotic memory, which is often the basis for allegations of abuse, is questioned, and it is noted that many patients who report memories of RCA suffer from multiple personality or other dissociative disorders. Alternative possible explanations for the large number of RCA allegations are offered. It is suggested that many therapists who believe in the literal reality of stories of abuse justify their belief in the context of their knowledge of the prevalence of sexual abuse. The characterization of abuse reports as potential expressions of personal, group, and cultural fantasies and wishes is addressed.

Lowney, Kathleen S. “Teenage Satanism as oppositional youth subculture.” Contemporary Ethnography 23(4) 1995 p.453.
Presents an ethnographic portrait of a coven of teenage Satanists and argues that the psychological, folkloric, and constructionist perspectives on Satanism are lacking an important voice, that of the adolescent Satanists themselves. Young adults involved with a coven were interviewed. Satanism allows the adolescents to challenge the dominant culture’s norms and values. However, lacking social power, this coven primarily used a symbolic critique, through the creation of a Satanic style.

Lubrick, Kristal. “Devil worship in the Land of Lakes.” Minnesota Police Chief, 9(3) 1989 pp.33-45.
Interviews with law enforcement officials in Minnesota regarding ritual crime.

Lutes, Chris. “Suicides blamed on music’s Satanic spell (heavy metal).” Christianity Today 32(5)1988 pp.57-62.



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