Safety Notice

If you are a survivor, please be careful in reading the information compiled here. It is impossible to give information on ritual abuse, and about people's opinions about ritual abuse, in a way that is not upsetting and/or triggering. Only you know how much is wise to read, and how much information you can absorb at one time.

Journal Articles, by Author, D to G


Damphousse, Kelly R., “Did the devil make them do it? An examination of the etiology of Satanism among juvenile delinquents.” Youth and Society 24(2) Dec 1992 pp.204-27.
Investigated the power of unique and common explanations (defined in terms of social learning theory (SLT)) to account for Satanism (STN) among 530 incarcerated youthful offenders (aged 10-17 yrs). According to SLT, low parental and educational attachment increase participation in deviant activity. 55 Ss identified themselves as Satanists. Results show significant positive relationships between STN and key SLT variables, suggesting that involvement in STN may not have a common etiology with other forms of deviance. Satanists were even more unattached to conventionality via parents and schools, even more attached to peers, and even less attached to delinquent peers than their non-Satanically involved counterparts. Whites with higher IQs and with friends in STN were more likely to be involved in STN themselves.

Daniels, Steve. “The devil made them do it: Is there a connection between serial killings and Satanism?” Minnesota Police Chief 9(3) 1989 pp.47-9.

Dawson, Judith. “Ritual abuse.” Social Work Today 22(3) 1991 p.418.
Confronting disbelief. Despite suffering under the media spotlight following her involvement in a ritual abuse controversy in Nottingham, Judith Dawson wants to see the issue thoroughly.

Dawson, Judith and Johnston, Chris. “When the truth hurts.” Community Care March 30, 1989 pp.11-3.
Describes the personal toll on professionals who advocated for child victims of ritual abuse in Nottingham, England.

Dawson, Judith. “Vortex of evil.” New Statesman Society 3(12) 1990 p.112.

DelCour, Julie. “Wild parties, Satanism - and death (Pentice Antwine Crawford trial).” Nat Law J 10(41) 1988 p. 10.
KEY WORDS: Crawford, Prentice Antwine - litigation; Satanism - litigation; United States.

DeMause, Lloyd. “The history of child assault.” J Psychohistory 18(1) 1990.

DeMause, Lloyd. “The universality of incest.” Psychohistory 19(2), 1991.

DeMause, Lloyd.  “The history of child abuse.”  J Psychohistory  25(3) Winter 1998.

DeMause, Lloyd. “Why cults terrorize and kill children.” Psychohistory 21(4) 1994 pp.505-18.
Refutes critics who suggest that investigation of Satanic ritual abuse (SRA) is a “witch hunt,” noting that those who advocate this view and the false memory theory are often molesters themselves. It is noted that many case histories are available that document SRA of children and that the most credible histories involve reports by children who have recently been abused by cults, rather than reports based on adult recollections. The psychodynamics of cultic ritual are discussed; the delusional absorption of children’s power is suggested as central to the group fantasy behind SRA. Lists the following steps in the psychodynamics of cultic torture and child sacrifice: regression, trance states, merging with the leader, deification of the leader, organization of cult hierarchy, and torture and sacrificial rebirth rituals. The applicability of these same cultic psychodynamics to the ritual of war is addressed.

de Young, Mary. “One face of the devil: The Satanic ritual abuse moral crusade and the law.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law 12(4) 1994 p.389.
Discusses the spread of allegations of Satanic ritual abuse of children over the last decade. The allegations are so horrific that a moral crusade comprised largely of psychotherapists, survivors, religious fundamentalists, and law enforcement professionals has risen up in response to them. The claim of the moral crusade that Satanic ritual abuse of children is an exigent social problem is analyzed through a review of the data on the organization of such cults, cult roles and rituals, motivation of cults, abuse symptomatology in children and adults, and reliability of information. The symbolic content of the moral crusade against these allegations of ritual abuse is discussed in terms of the creation of moral crusades at times of rapid social changes. The impact this moral crusade is having on the law is noted.

de Young, Mary. “A painted devil: Constructing the Satanic ritual abuse of children problem.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 1(3) Fall 1996. pp.235-248. 

deYoung, Mary. “Breeders for Satan: Toward a sociology of sexual trauma tales.” J Am Culture 19(2) 1996 p.111.

de Young, Mary. “Speak of the devil: Rhetoric in claims-making about the Satanic ritual abuse problem.” Sociology and Social Welfare 23(2) 1996 p.55.

deYoung, Mary. “The devil goes to day care: McMartin and the making of a...” J  American Culture 20(1) Spring 1997 p.19.

deYoung, Mary. Satanic ritual abuse in day care: An analysis of 12 American cases.” Child Abuse Review 6(2)  May, 1997  pp.84-93.
AUTHOR ABSRTRACT: Twelve of 100 cases of alleged Satanic ritual abuse in child care centers in the United States were examined, based on information from news media articles, investigative reports, interview transcripts, legal briefs, and court transcripts. Cases were included if they involved an arrest followed by a trial verdict, guilty plea, or dismissal of charges during the trial; the allegations of Satanic ritual abuse were actively investigated and publicly reported; and sufficient archival data existed to assess the case. The analysis focused on the nature of the allegations, the victims, the perpetrators, the criminal trials, and the case outcomes. Results revealed that it was impossible to determine whether or not such abuse existed, but the financial and emotional costs of trying to prove it has been high. Results also indicate that attempts to prove Satanic ritual abuse have functioned to detract attention from more common forms of child abuse and to obfuscate the investigation and substantiation of organized and systematic forms of child abuse in a variety of settings. The study’s major finding was that these cases contribute little to the debate about whether or not Satanic ritual abuse exists, but they do set an agenda for the international child abuse professional community for research, practice, and discussion.

deYoung, Mary. “Satanic ritual abuse in day care -- An update.” Child Abuse Review 6(4) 1997 pp.240-1.

Doland, Virgina M. "Satanic ritual abuse and determinate meaning: A response to Professor Ellis [pp. 274--277],” Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.278-9.

Driscoll, L. N. and Wright, C. “Survivors of childhood ritual abuse: Multi-generational Satanic cult involvement.” Treating Abuse Today 1(4) 1991 pp.5-13.
A comprehensive questionnaire was developed that included previously reported characteristics of ritual abuse. The questionnaire contained sections on background, therapy, ritual locations, time of meetings, group members, paraphernalia, ritual activities, and physical, psychological, and sexual victimization. Additionally, survivors provided information on symptoms and possible effects of the abuse and answered open-ended questions sharing their thoughts and feelings regarding their victimization.

Dyer, Owen. “Ritual abuse dismissed as mythical in Britain.” British Medical l 308( 6943) June 1994 p.1527.


Earle, A. S. “Cult and ritual abuse. Satanic ritual abuse.” Treating Abuse Today 7(2) 1997) pp.31-3.

Earthdaughter, Debby. “Re-Patterning: Ritual abuse and s/m as an access issue.” Lesbian Ethics 5(2) 1999 p.79.

Eaton, Lynn. “Ritual abuse: Fantasy or reality?” Social Work Today Sept. 26,1991 pp.8-12.
Case summary of six ritual child abuse investigations in Great Britain.

Edwards, Louise M. “Differentiating between ritual assault and sexual abuse,” J Child and Youth Care 6(4) 1991 pp.169-88. (This reprinted article originally appeared in The J Child and Youth Care, Special Issue, 1990, pp. 67--89. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA 78 p.1516.)
Discusses signs and symptoms that differentiate the sexual assault victim from the ritual assault (RA) victim. Symptoms often seen in RA victims include problems with menstrual periods, panic at the sight of blood, unusual symbols in art work, and unusual fear of talking about sexual assaults. RA victims demonstrate a need for emotional support, inability to accept caring, inability to make choices, and preoccupation with death and phases of the moon. Other signs of RA include brainwashing, paranoid and cynical attitudes toward authority figures and life, self-mutilation, fear of the dark and night terrors, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorder problems.

Eckert W. G., Katchis, S., and Donovan, W. “The pathology and medicolegal aspects of sexual activity.” Am J Forensic Med Pathol 12(1) 1991 pp.3-15.
The pathology of injury and its complications related to sexual activities has changed remarkably when compared with that of the past, which usually involved assaults or murders of female victims of varying ages, with moderate to serve beatings that may have accidentally resulted in the victim’s death. Serial murderers, serial rapists, and molesters of both boys and girls have become much more prevalent in the last two decades in the United States. Unorthodox sexual behavior, such as “fisting,” has increased in frequency, as has sexual violence related to cults, such as Satanism. All of these present many challenges to medicolegal investigators. This report describes general and specific pathological sexual activities and injuries, some characteristics and methods of the perpetrators, and some specific cases as examples.

Ehrensaft, Diane. “Preschool child sex abuse: The aftermath of the Presidio case.” Am J Orthopsychiatry 62(2) 1992 pp.234-44.
A case study is presented of girls who were among the preschool victims of sexual abuse linked to occult rituals that occurred at the Presidio Army Base Child Development Center. Components of the trauma, together with its effects on the victims and their families, are investigated, and implications for the mental health profession are discussed.

Ellason, J. W. and Ross, C. A. “Positive and negative symptoms in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: A comparative analysis.” J Nervous and Mental Disease 183 1995 pp.236-41.

Elliott, Peter. “Soapbox.” Social Work Today 22(43) 1991 p.26.

Ellis, Bill, “Satanic ritual abuse and legend ostension.” (reply, V. M. Doland, pp. 278-9,) Psychology and Theology, 20(3) 1992 pp.274-7.

Ellis, Bill. “Kurt E. Koch and the ‘Civitas Diaboli:’ Germanic folk healing as Satanic ritual abuse of children.” Western Folklore 54 (2) 1995 p.77.

Ellis, Bill. “Germanic folk healing as Satanic ritual abuse of children.” Western Folklore 54(4) 1995 p.77.

Emerson, Shirley, and Syron, Yvonne. “Adolescent Satanism: rebellion masquerading as religion.” Special Issue: “Rethinking uncertainty and chaos: Possibilities for counseling.” Counseling and Values 39(2) 1995 pp.145-59.
Describes the authors’ findings from 7 yrs of observing, interviewing, and counseling 143 adolescents involved in Satanism in the Southwest. A case example is given. Signs, symptoms, definitions, and activities are described. Adolescent Satanism is viewed as a rebellion and an effort to belong, in response to low self-esteem, peer difficulty, and isolation. Satanism provides a gang culture and feelings of power to compensate for powerlessness and deprivation. Male members have a need to belong, follow, and seek power or revenge. Female members are nihilistic, anorexic, and dependent on the leader for nurturance. Counselors need to address underlying individual and family pathology, suicidal and homicidal ideation, self-mutilation, drug abuse, sexual abuse, and victimization by control. Concurrent family assessment is imperative to examine the Satanic involvement in a family system context.


Faller, Kathleen Coulborn. “The spectrum of sexual abuse in day care.” Family Violence 3(4) 1988 pp.283-98.

Faller, Kathleen Coulborn. “Sexual abuse of children in cults: A clinical perspective.” Roundtable 2(2) 1990 pp.11-3.
Defines cultic sexual abuse, lists common characteristics, and discusses case management and treatment issues.

Faller, Kathleen Coulborn, Corwin, David L., and Olafson, Erna. “Literature review: Research on false allegations of sexual abuse in divorce.” APSAC Advisor 6(3) 1993 pp.7-9.
Literature and studies regarding false allegations in divorce actions are reviewed and evaluated.

Faller, Kathleen Coulborn. “Ritual abuse: A review of the research.” APSAC Advisor 7(1) 1994 pp.19-27.
Focuses on findings from empirical studies regarding professional experience with ritual abuse in day care, community-based cults and intergenerational groups.

Farrow, J. A., Schwartz, R. H., and Vanderleeuw, J. “Tattooing behavior in adolescence. A comparison study.” Am J Dis Child 5(2) 1999 pp.184-7.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with Satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in Satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed.

Feigon, E. A. and de Rivera, J. “‘Recovered-memory’ therapy: Profession at a turning point.” J. Compr Psychiatry 39(6) Nov-Dec 1998 pp.338-44.
Six hundred Massachusetts-registered psychiatrists were surveyed for their opinions on items plausibly related to the production of false memories of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred fifty-four psychiatrists completed the written questionnaire. A majority of respondents (69%) endorsed the following statement: “The numbers of false accusations of childhood sexual abuse, appearing to emerge from the psychotherapy of adults, constitute a real problem needing public acknowledgment as such by the mental health professions.” Nevertheless, a substantial minority endorsed the following practices: 37% endorsed searching for childhood roots of presenting complaints; 36% endorsed validation (expressed belief) of the patient’s memories as an essential part of therapy; 36% believed in appropriateness of affect as an indicator of truth in memories; 36% believed in the therapeutic value of abreaction; 26% would refer presumed survivors of abuse to specialists in incest recovery; 18% believed in ritual abuse as an important cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders; 18% trusted symptom checklists as indicators of sexual abuse histories; and 15% believed that memory is a complete record of the individual’s history. Small minorities (6% to 8%) endorsed these practices: using hypnosis to gain access to repressed memories of childhood abuse; patient confrontation of alleged abusers; and recommending the severing of contacts with skeptical family members. A factor analysis was performed, and it was found that self- designated specialists were more likely than nonspecialists to score toward the riskier pole of the four factors extracted.

Feldman,  Gail Carr. “Survivors of sadistic abuse: how to spot them.” Emergency Medicine 1993 Aug; 25 (11) pp.83-7.

Feldman, Gail Carr. “Satanic ritual abuse: A chapter in the history of human cruelty. Psychohistory 22(3) 1995 pp.340-57.
Presents a cultural and historical overview of practices attributed to Satanic and criminal cults including violence, magic, human sacrifice, witchcraft, sadism, and Satanism. Examples of criminal activities committed by Satanic cults are presented. It is concluded that Satanic crimes are being perpetrated in the US, and human sacrifice and cannibalism are still being practiced. State laws forbidding ritualized abuse of children and adults are noted.

Fine, Gary Alan, “Satanic tourism: Adolescent dabblers and identity work,” Phi Delta Kappan 76(1) 199, pp.70-2.
The attraction of some teenagers to Satanic symbolism, which communicates extreme pessimism, nihilism, and hopelessness, is distressing. Focusing on the trappings of teenage pseudo-Satanism is counterproductive; we should concentrate on the root causes of teenage crime---low self-esteem and poor social conditions---and not become distracted by faddish symbols of adolescent rebellion.

Fine, Jason. “Seeking evil: The hell of prosecuting Satanic ritual abuse (California)” California Lawyer 14(7) 1994 pp.50-9.
How do you prosecute Satanic ritual abuse? There’s no hard evidence, testimony is tainted, and most people don’t even believe the crime exists.

Fisher-Taylor, Gail. “Exposing (ritual abuse)” Social Work Today. 1990.

Fisher-Taylor, Gail. “Ritual abuse: Towards a feminist understanding.” Herizons, 1992.

Fontaine, J. S. “Organized and ritual abuse.” Med Sci Law 36(2) 1996 pp. 9-17.

Forrest, Margot Silk. “An interview with John Briere, Ph.D.” Treating Abuse Today 3(1) 1993 pp. 20-6.
This interview discusses the current treatment of adult survivors and the related backlash concerning reliability of repressed memory, ritual abuse and multiple personality, the impact of managed care and other contemporary critical issues.
KEY WORDS: Child Abuse - Dissociative Identity Disorder - False Memory - Females - Incest - Males - Personal Interview - Rape - Ritual Abuse - Survivors – Treatment

Forsyth, Craig J, “The theoretical framing of a social problem: Some conceptual notes on Satanic cults,” Deviant Behavior 11(3) 1990 pp.281-92.
After reviewing the evidence and reasons for a rise in activity and interest in the occult and Satanic cults, this putative social problem is examined from a traditionalist and then a constructionist perspective. The traditionalists argue that increased attention given to Satanic cults results in increased Satanic worship, while the constructionists argue that this worship has not increased but is a constant activity getting more attention now that it is defined as a problem. There is no clear support for accepting either of these arguments. Rather, the explanation for this social problem seems to fall somewhere between the two perspectives.

Fowler, Christopher. “A pragmatic approach to early childhood memories: Shifting the focus from truth to clinical utility.” Psychotherapy 31(4) Winter 1994 pp.676-86. 
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The growing backlash against repressed trauma memories has led both clinicians and the lay public to question basic assumptions about the historical accuracy of autobiographical memory. While the popular media is flooded with stories of falsely induced trauma memories, many clinicians and theoreticians are feeling the need to redress many of the conceptual fallacies regarding the accuracy of early childhood memory. This article reviews pertinent experimental literature in order to make a cogent case for Martin Mayman’s conceptually sophisticated, yet immensely practical working model of reconstructive memory. The integration of cognitive and psychodynamic theory results in an appreciation for the psychologically revealing quality of early memories. Two case illustrations demonstrate the integration of theory with practice.
KEY WORDS: Child Abuse - False Memory - Ritual Abuse - Survivors

Frame, Randall L. “Putting Satan’s work into perspective.” [news; seminar; “Satanism and neo-paganism”] Christianity Today 30(7) 198 p. 30.
KEY WORDS: Enroth, Ronald - Korem, Danny - Magic - Satanism - Spiritual Counterfeits Project (Berkeley, Calif.) - Cults--United States

Frankfurter, David. “Ritual as accusation and atrocity: Satanic ritual abuse, Gnostic libertinism, and primal murders.” History of Religions May 2001 40(4) p. 352.

Frankfurter, David. “The Satanic ritual abuse panic as religious-studies data.” Numen-Leiden (E. J. BRILL, Netherlands) 50(1) 2003 pp.108-17.

Frankfurter, David. “Religious studies and claims of Satanic ritual abuse: A rejoinder to Stephen Kent.” Religion 24(4) 1994 p.353.

Fraser, George A., “Satanic ritual abuse: A cause of multiple personality disorder,” Special Issue: “In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children” Child and Youth Care 1990 pp.55-65.
Describes the cases of 2 female patients who used dissociating or blocking of the memory to cope with their experience of sexual abuse as children. This defense often results in illnesses such as psychogenic amnesia and multiple personality disorder (MPD). The cases were derived from highly organized and secret Satanic cults that seem to pass from one generation to another. The cases illustrate not only that the ritual abuse may produce MPD, but also that the MPD may perpetuate the ritual abuse of new victims without the knowledge of the victim’s primary personality.

Freer, M.   “The politics and experience of ritual abuse: Beyond disbelief.” Health Sociology Review 10 (2) 2001 p.220.

Friesen, James G., “Ego-dystonic or ego-alien: Alternate personality or evil spirit?” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge” Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.197-200.
Describes differential diagnosis of personality states and evil spirits in Satanic ritual abuse (SRA). Confusion surrounds SRA; the interrelatedness of SRA, multiple personality disorder, and spiritual warfare add to the confusion. Both the psychological and spiritual realms are considered important for healing and should be carried out together. Evil spirits are presented as oppressive supernatural states, not as personality states. Treatment may require unifying personalities and casting out evil spirits. A diagnostic category (oppressive supernatural states disorder) is proposed with identifying guidelines.

Frude, Neil. “Ritual abuse: Conceptions and reality.”  Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1(1), Jan 1996 pp. 59-77.


Gaffney, Edward McGlynn. “Animal sacrifice and religious freedom.” Christian Century May 13 1992.

Gallagher, Bernard.Assessment and intervention in cases of suspected ritual child sexual abuse.’  Child Abuse Review  10(4)  July/Aug 2001  pp.227-42.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The researchers considered a case as one of suspected ritual abuse whenever an agency worker referred to it as such, regardless of what this term meant to the worker; however, most, if not all, agency workers were apparently using the term with reference to the sexual abuse of a child in the course of a Satanic act of worship. Cases of suspected ritual abuse were identified through searches of records of all referrals to police child protection units (CPU’s) and social services child protection coordinators (CPC’s) in eight local authority areas in England and Wales between January 1988 and December 1991. The study found that concerns about ritual abuse were rarely raised and constituted only a small proportion of child protection work. There were six cases of suspected children’s victimization in ritual abuse and six cases in which adults alleged they had been the victims of ritual abuse when they were children. These cases constituted 0.1 percent of all child protection referrals to police and social services and 0.2 percent of all child sexual abuse referrals. Although agency workers in these cases believed that all the child victims had been subjected to serious sexual abuse, virtually all of them were circumspect as to whether the abuse had occurred in a ritual context. Initially, agency workers were open-minded regarding the experiences of adult survivors, but by the conclusion of their assessments, they tended to be more concerned about the mental health of the survivors than about the issue of ritual abuse. The agency workers apparently acted appropriately in the selection of the types of intervention they used and their application. Study findings suggest that more confidence should be placed in the ability of agency workers to respond to cases of alleged ritual abuse.

Gallagher, Bernard.Ritual, and child sexual abuse, but not ritual child sexual abuse.” Child Abuse Review 9(5)  Sept/Oct 2001 pp.321-7.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: The two cases were identified during a major search of police and social service records relating to all child protection referrals in eight local authority areas in England between January 1988 and December 1991. In one case, a 6-year-old boy was sexually abused by his 12-year-old brother. After 3 years of abuse, the younger boy told his sister. The sister told the parents but they did not believe the allegation and failed to report it to any agency. Several years later, the two brothers met again and ritual sexual abuse reportedly occurred. The younger brother, 15 years old at this time, ran away from home but left a note for his parents disclosing the abuse. This time, the parents contacted the police who conducted an investigation. The older brother and his friend were tried and convicted of multiple sex offenses. In the other case, day care personnel found a 3-year-old girl was sore in her genital area and reported this to social services. In the course of the subsequent investigation, it was found the girl’s mother had some unconventional religious beliefs. The investigation, however, determined the parents did not appear to be responsible for the sexual abuse. Suspicion turned to a male babysitter, but there was insufficient evidence to charge him. The two cases raise clear questions about ritual abuse and the implications of such abuse for practice, particularly with respect to child sexual abuse. Three possible situations in which rituals may occur in conjunction with child sexual abuse are identified: (1) where suspected abusers have an interest in rituals but where there is no suggestion the rituals and sexual abuse overlap; (2) where suspected abusers have used rituals to entrap a child and/or as a means of obtaining additional gratification; and (3) where abusers are alleged to have sexually abused a child as part of an act of Satanic worship. The author believes the two cases demonstrate the need for broader and more balanced debate on ritual abuse in general and the handling of ritual abuse cases in particular.

Ganaway, George K. “Historical versus narrative truth: Clarifying the role of exogenous trauma in the etiology of MPD and its variants.” Dissociation, 2(4) 1989 pp.205-20.
Offers alternative explanations for ritual abuse allegations.

Ganaway, George K. “On the nature of memories.” Response to “A reply to Ganaway.” Dissociation 5(2) 1992 pp.120-2.
Responds to the critique by M. R. Smith (see PA 80:25741) concerning the author’s original article (see PA 78:24404) on alternative explanations for clients who report accounts of ritual abuse in their backgrounds. The author argues that contrary to Smith’s assumption, a screen memory need not represent solely a “real” memory nor solely a fantasy; it could be either, or in some cases a mixture of the two.

Ganaway, George K. “Some additional questions: A response to Shaffer & Cozolino, to Gould & Cozolino, and to Friesen,” Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, J Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.201-05.
Reviews and comments on 3 articles by R. E. Shaffer and L. J. Cozolino (see PA  80:18563), C. Gould and Cozolino (see PA 80:18534), and J. G. Friesen (see PA 80:18528) concerning Satanic ritual abuse (SRA). The importance of raising questions about the nature of the relationship between patients and therapists during psychotherapy and the need for closer scrutiny of the techniques being used to uncover and explore alleged trauma memories are affirmed.

Garven, Sena, Wood, James M., Malpass, Roy S. and Shaw, John S. “More than suggestion: The effect of interviewing techniques from the McMartin Preschool case.”  J Applied Psychology 83(3) Jun 1998 pp.347-59.
Child interviewing techniques derived from transcripts of the McMartin Preschool case were found to be substantially more effective than simple suggestive questions at inducing preschool children to make false allegations against a classroom visitor. Thirty-six children interviewed with McMartin techniques made 58% accusations, compared with 17% for 30 children interviewed with suggestive questions. Social influence and reinforcement appeared to be more powerful determinants of children’s answers than simple suggestive questions. The SIRR model is proposed to explain how false statements may be elicited from children or adults. Categories identified in the SIRR model are suggestive questions, social influence, reinforcement, and removal from direct experience.

Garvey, Kevin, and Blood, Linda Osborne. “Interesting times [critique of Satanism in America]” Cultic Studies J 8(2) 1991 pp.151-90.

Gelb, Jerome L. “Multiple personality disorder and Satanic ritual abuse,” Australian and New Zealand J Psychiatry, 27(4) 1993 pp.701-8.
Contends that the increasing popularity of the multiple personality disorder and Satanic ritual abuse diagnoses does not reflect increased scientific validation of such disorders. Psychiatrists are urged to not promote treatment techniques which only perpetuate and amplify symptomatology and dysfunction.

Gelb, Jerome L. “Multiple personality disorder and Satanic ritual abuse [letter] Comment in: Australian and New Zealand J Psychiatry, 1(3) 1994 pp.154-5.

Gerasimov, Dmitry. “Satanic tribe: Who is behind the monks’ murder?” Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press 45(18) 1993 p. 26/
The ritual murder of Russian monks in April 1993 has raised questions about the proliferation of religious sects in that country. Evidence surrounding the murder indicates that the perpetrator was carrying out a cult-inspired sacrifice of the monks. A knife marked with three sixes, and the method of stabbing suggest a possible connection to the Levites, who historically sacrificed gentiles on gentile holy days. The number of Russians who are murdered in mysterious, ritual ways, and the uncounted number of religious sects has raised public concern about their societal impact.

Glass, Steven L. “An overview of Satanism and ritualized child abuse. J of Police and Criminal Psychology 7(2) Oct 1991 p.4.

Gold, S. R., Milan, L. D., Mayall, A., and Johnson, A. E. “A cross-validation study of the trauma symptom checklist: The role of mediating variables.” Interpersonal Violence 9 1994 pp.12-26.

Golston, Joan C. “Ritual abuse: Raising hell in psychotherapy: Creation of cruelty: The political military and multigenerational training of torturers: Violent initiation and the role of traumatic dissociation,” Treating Abuse Today 3(6) 1993 pp.12-9.
Golston presents a model of enforced traumatic personality transformation which accounts for the process by which military units, cults and political groups turn raw recruits, children, or other captives into torturers.

Golston, J.. “Raising hell in psychotherapy. Part II. Comparative abuse: Shedding light on ritual abuse through the study of torture methods in political repression, sexual sadism, and genocide.” Treating Abuse Today 2(6) 1992 pp.5-16.
This article discusses how a comparative examination of torture methods in political repression, sexual sadism and genocide and ritual abuse offers a new light under which to scrutinize the validity of ritual abuse reports.

Golston, Joan C. “Raising hell in psychotherapy: The ritual abuse countertransference response and the erosion of clinical scholarship.” Treating Abuse Today, 2(4), 1992 pp.4-12.
Suggests that clinicians’ countertransference responses to ritual abuse reports have led to polarized debates, flawed scholarship and a preoccupation with issues of credibility.

Gomez, Lavinia. (1995). “Satanist abuse.” British J Counselling, May, pp.116-20.
Report by British psychotherapist based on information presented at the first National Conference on Satanist Abuse, held by the Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in December, 1993.

Gonzalez, L.. S., Waterman, J., Kelly, R. J., McCord, J. and Oliveri, M. K. “Children’s patterns of disclosures and recantations of sexual and ritualistic abuse allegations in psychotherapy.” Child Abuse & Neglect 17(2) 1993 pp.281-90.
Patterns of disclosures and recantations of abuse made in psychotherapy were examined in a sample of 63 children who reported sexual and ritualistic abuse in a preschool setting. Therapists completed a measure that instructed them to identify the time since the child began therapy when any disclosures or recantations were made, to specify the type of abuse disclosed or recanted, and to identify any events that might be related to the timing of a disclosure or recantation. The findings revealed that the majority of subjects (76.2%) disclosed abuse within the first month of therapy. Recantation occurred in 17 cases (27%) and all but two children who recanted redisclosed abuse after the initial recantation. There was some evidence that children’s experiences within the legal system may have been associated with recantations. Subjects tended to make vague disclosures before revealing more specific acts, reveal less intrusive sexual abuse (e.g., kissing) before more intrusive types (e.g., intercourse), and to disclose ritualistic abuse after other types.

Goodman, Gail S., Quas, J.A., Bottoms, Bette L., Qin, J., Shaver, Phillip R., Orcutt, H. and Shapiro, C. “Children’s religious knowledge: Implications for understanding Satanic ritual abuse allegations.” Child Abuse Negl 21(11) 11, 1997, pp.1109-10 [see comments] Child Abuse Negl 21(11) 1997 pp.1111-30.
The goals of the present study were to examine the extent of children’s religious, especially Satanic, knowledge and to understand the influence of children’s age, religious training, family, and media exposure on that knowledge. Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of: (a) religion and religious worship; (b) religion-related symbols and pictures; and (c) movies, music, and television shows with religious and horror themes. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of Satanism and Satanic worship. With age, children’s religious knowledge increased and became more sophisticated. Increased exposure to non-Satanic horror media was associated with more nonreligious knowledge that could be considered precursory to Satanic knowledge, and increased exposure to Satanic media was associated with more knowledge related to Satanism. Our results suggest that children do not generally possess sufficient knowledge of Satanic ritual abuse to make up false allegations on their own. However, many children have knowledge of Satanism as well as nonreligious knowledge of violence, death, and illegal activities. It is possible that such knowledge could prompt an investigation of Satanic ritual abuse or possibly serve as a starting point from which an allegation is erected.

Goodman, Gail S. and Schaaf, Jennifer M. “Over a decade of research on children’s eyewitness testimony: what have we learned? where do we go from here?” Applied Cognitive Psychology 11 1997 pp.S5-S20.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT: Scientific understanding of children’s eyewitness memory has advanced colossally over the last 15 years. After more than a decade of intense research, it is possible to reflect on empirical knowledge gained about memory accuracy and interviewing strategies, and to propose directions for future inquiry. In the present article, past studies of the effects of leading questions, repeated interviews, and interview context are reviewed. The contribution of leading questions to allegations of Satanic ritual abuse is addressed, as is the contribution of individual-difference factors, such as abuse history, to memory performance. The dilemma of designing an interview for children which simultaneously reduces both the dangers of false reports and the dangers of lack of disclosure is discussed. It is proposed that interviews should not be judged dichotomously as either leading or non-leading, but rather viewed as falling along a ‘leadingness continuum’. To guide future research, a call is made to integrate complex applied and theoretical issues in the study of child witnesses.

Goodman, Gail S., Bottoms, Bette L., Redlich, Allison D., Shaver, Phillip R., and Diviak, Kathleen R. “Correlates of multiple forms of victimization in religion-related child abuse cases.”  J Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 2(1) 1998 pp.273-95.
AUTHOR ABSTRACT:  Abuse perpetrated under the guise of religion is a devastating form of child maltreatment that often involves multiple types of victimization. In a large-scale survey of clinicians, we investigated the nature and emotional sequelae of religion-related child sexual abuse cases. We predicted that there would be marked differences between cases involving multiple forms of abuse and those involving only sexual abuse. Our results indicate that as the number of abuses increases, so does the severity of the abusive experience and the seriousness of psychological consequences for the victim. Thus, religion-related abuse is best understood in light of the specific types and combinations of abuses suffered by victims.

Goodman, Gail S., Bottoms, Bette L., Redlich, Allison D., Shaver, Phillip R., and Diviak, Kathleen R. “Correlates of multiple forms of victimization in religion-related child abuse cases.” Violence and Abuse Abstracts 6(3) 2000.
See above.  

Goodwin, Jean, Hill, Sally, and Attias, Reina. “Historical and folk techniques of exorcism: Applications to the treatment of dissociative disorders.” Dissociation . 3(2) 1990 pp.94-101.
Describes Christian and Jewish exorcism practices, together with techniques from other cultures, and relates elements of these techniques to the psychotherapeutic treatment of dissociative disorders. Common elements found in traditional exorcisms include (1) use of special diagnostic techniques; (2) use of incantations, scriptures, and music; (3) use of ritual objects; (4) physical interventions; (5) verbal confrontation of the possessing spirit; (6) aftercare; and (7) care to understand and avert risks to the exorcist. Familiarity with these techniques is useful when working with patients who allege that they are victims of sadistic ritual abuse and who may seek exorcism from traditional sources. The essential technical difference between exorcism and psychotherapy is that exorcism involves expulsion while psychotherapy involves integration. Cases of Christian and Jewish exorcism are presented.

Goodwin, Jean M. “Sadistic abuse: Definition, recognition, and treatment.”  Dissociation 6(2-3), Spec Issue, Jun-Sep 1993. pp.181-87. 

Goodwin, Jean. “Credibility problems in sadistic abuse.” J Psychohistory 21(4) Spring 1994. Special issue: “Cult abuse of children: Witch hunt or reality?” pp.479-96.

Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A., Laidlaw, Tannis M. and Large, Robert G. “Surveying families accused of childhood sexual abuse: A comparison of British and New Zealand results.”  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11(1) Feb 1997. pp.31-4. 

Gould, Catherine and Cozolino, Louis. “Ritual abuse, multiplicity, and mind control.” J Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.194-6.
Discussion of “cult-created” multiplicity.

Gould, Catherine. “Satanic ritual abuse: Child victims, adult survivors, system response.” The California Psychologist, 22(3) 1987 pp.1-2.
Panel discussion by therapists, journalist, police officer and child advocate.

Gould, Catherine. “Satanic ritual abuse: Child victims, adult survivors, system response.” California Psychologist 22(3) 1987 pp.1-2.
Panel discussion by therapists, a journalist, a police officer and a child advocate.

Gould, Catherine and Neswald, David. “Play therapy with child victims of ritual abuse.” Treating Abuse Today, 4(2) 1994.

Gould, Catherine, and Graham-Costain, Vicki. “Play therapy with ritually abused children, Part I” Treating Abuse Today 4(2) 1994 pp.4-10.
The authors propose a three-part model for the treatment of ritually abused children. The components of their model include: (1) treating the child’s PTSD, (2) identifying and then working with the child’s dissociative personality system (often involving treatment of multiple personality disorder), and (3) assisting the child to distinguish and work through indoctrinating messages and mind control programming that were given to them during dissociation-producing abusive experiences. Disclosure of the abuse and abreactive play therapy are the primary mechanisms of treatment. In this installment, the authors discuss behavioral and affective aspects of treatment.

Gould, Catherine, and Graham-Costain, Vivki. “Play therapy with ritually abused children, Part II,” Treating Abuse Today 4(3) 1994 pp.14-9.
In this and Part I, the authors discuss their three-part model for the treatment of ritually abuse d children. The components of this model include: (1) treating the child’s PTSD, (2) identifying and then working with the child’s dissociative personality system (often involving treatment of multiple personality or other major dissociative disorder) and, (3) assisting the child to distinguish and work through indoctrinating messages and mind control programming that were given to them during dissociation-producing abusive experiences. Disclosure and play therapy are the primary mechanisms of treatment.  In this concluding article, the authors discuss processing dissociated body sensation, integrating knowledge, cognitive restructuring, issues of mind control programming and indoctrination, working with the dissociative personality system, and other clinical concerns.

Gould, Catherine and Neswald, D. “Basic treatment and program neutralization strategies for adult MPD survivors of Satanic ritual abuse.” Treating Abuse Today 2(3) 1992 pp. 5-10.?
This article presents a variety of practical treatment principles and useful clinical strategies for therapists contending with mind-control programming in multiple personality disorder and Satanic ritual abuse clients.

Gould, Catherine. “Ritual abuse, multiplicity, and mind-control.” Special Issue: “Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge.” J Psychology and Theology 20(3) 1992 pp.194-6.
As a result of the psychologically intolerable nature of their early childhood experiences, victims of ritual abuse frequently develop multiple personality disorder (MPD). Experience with victims of ritual abuse suggests the presence of cult-created multiplicity, in which the cult deliberately creates alter personalities to serve its purposes, often outside of the awareness of the victim’s host personality. Each cult-created alter is programmed to serve a particular cult function (e.g., maintaining contact with the cult, disrupting the therapeutic process). Ritual abuse victims in psychotherapy may maintain cult contact unbeknownst to either the host personality or the treating therapist. Treatment recommendations are presented.

Gould, Catherine. “Denying ritual abuse of children.” J Psychohistory 22(3) 1995 pp.329-39.
Argues that evidence of the ritual abuse (RA) of children constitutes a child abuse problem of significant scope. Comparative studies that illustrate the greater effects of RA on child victims than of sexual abuse are reviewed. The roles of economic and sociocultural factors and of cult/perpetrator groups in the deception and denial of RA are discussed. It is argued that a paradigm shift is needed to change the understanding of law enforcement personnel, public policy makers, the judiciary, and the child protection system regarding RA victims. Denial of RA in the US threatens our image of ourselves as Americans.



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