Safety Notice

If you are a survivor, please be careful in reading the information compiled here. It is impossible to give information on ritual abuse, and about people's opinions about ritual abuse, in a way that is not upsetting and/or triggering. Only you know how much is wise to read, and how much information you can absorb at one time.


Selected Websites

International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims. definition of torture - effects of torture - rehabilitation - access to justice - prevention - testimonies – books and pamphlets - newsletter (
IRTC’s regional networks:
Asia: Asia Net.
Europe Balkan Network (BAN).
Latin America and the Caribbean. Red Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Instituciones de la Salud contra la Tortura, la Impunidad y otras Violaciones a los Derechos Humanos (RedSalud - DDHH)
Middle East and North Africa. Network of Non-Governmental Centers and Programs Working against Torture in the Middle East and North Africa (AMAN)
North America. Canadian Network for the Health of Survivors of Torture and Organized Violence.
National Consortium of Torture Treatment Programs (NCTTP). Links to organizations in sixteen states
Pacific: The Forum of Australian Services for Survivors of Torture and Trauma (FASSTT)

Kenneth Pope's Resources for Torture Survivors, Refugees, Detainees, and Asylum Seekers. 136 links to organizations fighting torture world-wide.

Selected Books

Basoglu, M, ed. (1992) Torture and its consequences: Current treatment approaches. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England and NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction M. Basoglu Part I. Torture and its Consequences: 1. The prevention of torture and the clinical care of survivors: a field in need of a new science R. Mollica 2. The physical sequelae of torture G. Skylv 3. Psychosocial consequences of torture: current knowledge and evidence F. Somnier, P. Vesti, M. Kastrup and I. K. Genefke 4. Psychological effects of torture: an empirical study of tortured and non-tortured non-political prisoners M. Paker, Paker and S. Yksel 5. Psychosocial consequences for tortured refugees seeking asylum and refugee status in Europe R. Baker 6. Long-term effects of torture in former prisoners of war T. W. Miller 7. The Holocaust: survivors and their children N. Solkoff Part II. Theory: 8. Psychobiological consequences of severe trauma J. A. Saporta and B. A. Van der Kolk 9. The role of uncontrollable and unpredictable stress in post-traumatic stress responses in torture survivors M. Basoglu and S. Mineka Part III. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Classification: 10. Psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): boundaries of the syndrome R. McNally 11. Overview: the assessment and diagnosis of torture events and symptoms R. F. Mollica and Y. Caspi-Yavin Part IV. Rehabilitation Programmes for Torture Survivors: 12. Organization of care and rehabilitation services for victims of torture and other forms of organized violence: a review of current issues L. H. M. van Willigen 13. Multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of torture survivors S. Bjholm and P. Vesti 14. Sexual torture and the treatment of its consequences I. Lunde and J. Ortmann Part V. Psychotherapy: 15. Psychodynamic approaches in the treatment of torture survivors E. Bustos 16. Psychotherapy for torture survivors P. Vesti and M. Kastrup 17. Current trends in the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms T. M. Keane, A. M. Albano and D. D. Blake 18. Behavioural and cognitive approach in the treatment of torture-related psychological problems M. Basoglu Part VI. Torture in Particular Countries: Experience with Survivors of Torture in their Home country: 19. Torture in Argentina D. Kordon, L. Edelman, D. Lagos, E. Nicoletti, D. Kersner and M. Groshaus 20. Torture and the helping professions in South Africa T. Dowdall 21. Torture in Pakistan M. Mehdi 22. Rehabilitation of survivors of torture and political violence under a continuing stress situation: the Philippine experience A. A. Parong, E. Protacio-Marcelino, S. Estrado-Claudio, J. Pagaduan-Lopez and M. V. Cabildo Part VII. Modern Ethics and International Law: 23. Modern ethics and international law B. Sorensen.
NOTE: From the Publisher: “This book reveals in some detail the medical, psychiatric and psychological problems confronting survivors of torture, and reviews the various treatment approaches available to those involved in their care. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with other violent acts or situations, by reference to the experience of treating prisoners of war, Holocaust survivors, and other survivors of violence in the military or civilian arenas. Contributions are drawn both from host countries treating refugees who have experienced torture and also from a number of countries where treatment and rehabilitation of torture survivors has taken place in a setting of continuing political repression. The importance of this work lies in its emphasis on a scientific approach to the problem of torture while also giving due consideration to its social and political dimensions. As a source of theoretical and practical information it is unrivalled...”
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Brogdon, B. G., Vogel, Hermann, Md. and McDowell, John D. (eds.) (2003) A radiologic atlas of abuse, torture, terrorism, and inflicted trauma. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Section I Abuse: Child Abuse - Abuse of Intimate Partners - Abuse of the Aged - Self-Abuse - Civil/Political Abuse - Section II Torture: Beating - Electric Torture - Water Torture - Finger and Toe Torture - Stabbing, Cutting - Postural Torture - Other Forms of Torture - Section III Terrorism: Explosives - Gas - Biologic/Bacteriologic Terrorism – Poisons - Section IV Missile Firing Personal Weapons: Conventional Weapons Including Shotguns - Pitfalls in the Radiology of Gunshot Wounds - Air Guns - Unconventional Loads and Weapons - Section V Inflicted Trauma: Sharp Trauma - Blunt Trauma - War - Section VI Radiologic Identification: Dental Identification - Conventional Radiologic Identification - Mass Casualty Situations - Other Modalities, Other Reasons - Virtual Autopsy with Radiological Cross-Sectional Modalities - Section VII Border Control and Internal Security: Search of the Person - Search of Luggage Cargo and Transport - Index
NOTE: From the Publisher: A radiologic atlas of abuse, torture, terrorism, and inflicted trauma combines the lifetime experience of two distinguished radiologists and a renowned odontologist to provide an unprecedented collection of radiographs depicting the results of violence on the human body. Victims of aggression range from the tiniest infant to entire populations.
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Callamard, Agnès. (2000) Monitoring and investigating torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and prison conditions. Amnesty International and Codesria, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Conway, John. (2000) Unspeakable acts, ordinary people: The dynamics of torture. Univ. of CA Press, Berkeley, CA.
NOTE: Using cases from three different countries (the torture of IRA suspects by the British Army in 1971; the torture of Palestinians by Israeli troops in 1988; and the torture of a cop-killing suspect by Chicago police in 1982) Conway describes the dynamics of torture. In all three cases, when evidence of torture was brought to light it was met with denial and minimization, which protected the torturers rather than their victims. Interviews with both victims and torturers.
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Elsass, Peter. (1997) Treating victims of torture and violence: Theoretical, cross-cultural, and clinical implications. NY Univ. Press, NY, NY and London, England.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Torture, Violence, and Aggression - The Torture Syndrome – Psychotherapeutic Treatment – The Cultural Psychology of the Torture Syndrome – Cultural-Psychological Treatment: Examples of Psychotherapy Showing Respect for Foreign Cultures -The Torture Survivor’s Perspective – Appendix - References
NOTE: From the Publisher: “… the definitive manual for therapists treating victims of torture, prisoners of war, and casualties of forced migration. Divided into five sections dealing with basic concepts of torture -- violence and aggression, the torture syndrome, psychotherapeutic treatment, the cultural psychology of torture syndrome, and cultural psychological treatment -- Treating victims of torture and violence employs both classic psychoanalytic and cognitive- behavioral methods. Realizing that torture victims are frequently from different cultures than those of their therapists, Peter Elsass provides in-depth aid to therapists dealing with a multicultural clientele.”
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Gerrity, Ellen. Keane, Terence M. and Tuma, Farris. (eds.) (2001) The mental health consequences of torture. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - Background - Conceptual and Definitional Concepts - Organization of the Book - References - The Survivors Perspective - Torture and Related Trauma - Victim Versus Survivor - A Shroud of Guilt - How Could I Let That Happen? - Misdiagnosis - To Live or Not? - To Believe or Not - Resilience of Survivors - Reclaiming Control - Therapy - Effects of Torture on the Family - The Culture of Denial - Research Recommendations - References - Torture and Mental Health - Prevalence of Torture - Physical Effects of Torture - Psychological Effects of Torture - Evidence for a Torture Specific Syndrome - Discussion and Conclusions - References - CONCEPTUAL MODELS: Psychosocial Models - Information Processing - Social/Cognitive Models - Social Support Models - Learned Helplessness - References - Neurobiological Models of Posttraumatic Stress - Sympathetic Nervous System Alterations - The Hypothalamic/Pituitary/Adrenal System - Stress Sensitization - Fear Conditioning - Enhanced Memory for Aversive Events - Other Considerations - References - Economic Models - Conceptual Framework - Major Analytic Questions - The Role of Economic Burden Measurement - References - TORTURE AND THE TRAUMA OF WAR: Refugees and Asylum Seekers - Scope of the Problem - Studies of Psychological Problem - Biological Social and Cultural Elements - Research Recommendations - References - Veterans of Armed Conflicts - Impact - Recommendations for Future Research - References - Former Prisoners of War  - Course and Complications - Biological Correlates of Captivity - Recent Attention to US POWs - References - Holocaust Trauma and Sequelae - Impact of Trauma - Individual Differences - Coping With Life Stresses - Protective Factors - Contextualizing the Holocaust - Conclusion - References - Survivors of War Trauma, Mass Violence - Introduction - Methodology - Trends in Trauma Assessment - Trauma as a Risk Factor - Comorbidity and Other Outcomes - Influences on Psychopathology - Research Recommendations and Conclusions - References - TORTURE AND THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Rape and Sexual Assault - Focus of Section - Scope of Exposure - Impact - Other Psychological Outcomes - Cognitive Outcomes - Economic Impact - Risk and Protective Factors - Research Recommendations - References - Homicide and Physical Assault - Scope of Exposure - Impact - Risk Factors- References - Children, Adolescents and Families - Range and Prevalence of Trauma - Nature and Course of Psychological Reactions - Factors That Influence Vulnerability- Assessment and Intervention - Conclusion - Domestic Violence in Families - Exposure to Torture - Characteristics of Domestic Torture - Approaches to Treatment - References - CLINICAL ISSUES FOR SURVIVORS OF TORTURE: Assessment, Diagnosis and Intervention - Assessment - Diagnoses - Intervention Issues - Specific Intervention Strategies - Community Approaches - Research Recommendations - References - Measurement Issues - Basic Principles of Measurement - Measurement Procedures - Measurement Instruments - Summary of Measurement Issues - References - Mental Health Services  - Structure and Organization of Services - Process of Care - Intended Outcomes of Care - Access to Care - Conclusion - Professional Caregiver and Observer - Therapist Reactions - Other Caregiver Responses - Ethical Issues in Torture and Treatment - References - Torture and Human Rights Violations - The Law and Treatment and Service - An Overview of International  - Addressing War Crimes - The Crime Victims Rights, Laws - Reparations Restitution and Compensation - Restorative Justice - Implications and Policy Recommendations - References”
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Written by specialists at the Berlin Center for the Treatment of Torture Victims, the book covers topics ranging from physical rehabilitation to advocacy for those seeking asylum and justice. The authors describe traumatic aftereffects of torture such as memory loss, nightmares, and psychosomatic disorders, and outline therapeutic treatments such as dream therapy and storytelling. Throughout, the authors document their work without hiding the limits and failures that often accompany it. They tell of the difficulty of diagnosing torture symptoms, discuss the problems impeding therapeutically effective contact with torture victims, and reflect on the burdens faced by therapists themselves.”
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Giffard, Camille. (2000) The torture reporting handbook: How to document and respond to allegations of torture within the international system for the protection of human rights. Human Rights Centre, Univ. of Essex, Colchester, England.

Graessner, Sepp, Gurris, Norbert and Pross, Christian. (eds.) Translated from the German by Jeremiah Michael Riemer. (2001) At the side of torture survivors: Treating a terrible assault on human dignity. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1 Foreign Bodies in the Soul - Ferdinand Haenel 2 Psychic Trauma through Torture-Healing through Psychotherapy? - Norbert Gurris 3 The Vestige of Pain: Psychosomatic Disorders among Survivors of Torture - Mechthild Wenk-Ansohn 4 "In My Fingertips I Don't Have a Soul Anymore": Body Psychotherapy with Survivors of Torture-Insights into Work with Concentrative Movement Therapy - Sylvia Karcher 5 The Frozen Lake: Gestalt Therapy Dreamwork with Torture Victims -  Sibylle Rothkegel 6 The Healing Power of Storytelling  - SalahAhmad 7 "Every Perpetrator's Acquittal Costs Me Two Weeks' Sleep": How Societies and Individuals Cope with Trauma, as Illustrated by the German Democratic Republic - Christian Pross 8 There, Where Words Fail, Tears Are the Bridge: Thoughts on Speechlessness in Working with Survivors of Torture  - Britta enkins 9 Two Hundred Blows to the Head: Possibilities and Limits in Evaluating the Physical Aftereffects of Torture - Sepp Graessner 10 "Like a Drop of Water": Everyday Life for Asylum Seekers and Social Work with Survivors of Torture  -  Frank Merkord  11 Everything Forgotten! Memory Disorders among Refugees Who Have Been Tortured - Sepp Graessner, SalahAhmad, and Frank Merkord 12 What Does This Work Do to Us? - Johan Lansen AFTERWORD Legal Status, Living Conditions, and Health Care for Political Refugees in Germany  -  Christian Pross
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Written by specialists at the Berlin Center for the Treatment of Torture Victims, the book covers topics ranging from physical rehabilitation to advocacy for those seeking asylum and justice. The authors describe traumatic aftereffects of torture such as memory loss, nightmares, and psychosomatic disorders, and outline therapeutic treatments such as dream therapy and storytelling. Throughout, the authors document their work without hiding the limits and failures that often accompany it. They tell of the difficulty of diagnosing torture symptoms, discuss the problems impeding therapeutically effective contact with torture victims, and reflect on the burdens faced by therapists themselves.”
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Written by specialists at the Berlin Center for the Treatment of Torture Victims, the book covers topics ranging from physical rehabilitation to advocacy for those seeking asylum and justice. The authors describe traumatic aftereffects of torture such as memory loss, nightmares, and psychosomatic disorders, and outline therapeutic treatments such as dream therapy and storytelling. Throughout, the authors document their work without hiding the limits and failures that often accompany it. They tell of the difficulty of diagnosing torture symptoms, discuss the problems impeding therapeutically effective contact with torture victims, and reflect on the burdens faced by therapists themselves.”
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Greenberg, Karen J., Dratel, Joshua L. and Lewis, Anthony. (eds.) (2005) The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY, NY.
NOTE: A collection of memorandums, legal briefs, reports, interviews, and other source material presented in chronological order showing various positions on the use of torture and unorthodox interviewing techniques. The memos and reports document the systematic attempt of the US Government to prepare the way for torture techniques and coercive interrogation practices, forbidden under international law, with the express intent of evading legal punishment in the aftermath of any discovery of these practices and policies.
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Haritos-Fatouros, Mika, (2002) The psychological origins of institutionalized torture. Routledge, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - Approach and methodology - The Greek situation - Transforming ordinary men into torturers - Case study of a chief torturer - Dispositional factors in Greek torturers: a sufficient explanation? - a sufficient explanation? - Psychological theories on the origins of torture -Reconstruction processes in the formation of torturers - Parallels to comparisons - Epilogue - Appendix: The historical context - Bibliography
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Original research, including interviews with former Greek torturers, is supplemented by discussion of former studies, military records and other sources, to provide disturbing but valuable insights into the psychology of torture. Of essential interest to academics and students interested in social psychology and related disciplines, this book will also be extremely valuable to policy-makers, professionals working in government, and all those interested in securing and promoting human rights.”
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Kalmanowitz, Debra and Lloyd, Bobby. (eds.) 2005. Art therapy and political violence: With art, without illusion. Routledge, Hove, East Sussex, England and NY, NY.
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Art therapy and political violence brings together contributions from all over the world and from diverse theoretical backgrounds. With contributions from Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Israel and South Africa, the book includes numerous clinical examples to vividly illustrate the main issues affecting art therapy. The practical issues involved are also discussed, including subjects such as the importance of working with both the internal and external worlds of the individual and sensitivity to cultural issues. Art therapists, psychotherapists and other mental health professionals, particularly those working in the context of political violence or in countries of refuge, will find the experiences recounted in Art Therapy and Political Violence thought-provoking and will welcome the wealth of practical information provided.”
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Levinson, Sanford (ed.) (2004) Torture: A collection. Oxford University Press, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Foreword: Ariel Dorfman: The Tyranny of Terror: Is Torture Inevitable in Our Century and Beyond? - Introduction: Sanford Levinson:  Contemplating Torture - PHILOSOPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS - Henry Shue: Torture - Michael Walzer: Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands - Jean Bethke Elshtain: Reflection on the Problem of Dirty Hands - TORTURE AS PRACTICED - John H. Langbein: The Legal History of Torture - Jerome H. Skolnick: American Interrogation: From Torture to Trickery - Mark Osiel: The Mental State of Torturers:  Argentina's Dirty War - CONTEMPORARY ATTEMPTS TO ABOLISH TORTURE THROUGH LAW - John T. Parry: Escalation and Necessity:  Defining Torture at Home and Abroad - Supreme Court of Israel: Judgment Concerning the Legality of the General Security Service's Interrogation Methods - Miriam Gur-Arye: Can the War against Terror Justify the Use of Force in Interrogations? Reflections in Light of the Israeli Experience - Oona A. Hathaway: The Promise and Limits of the International Law of Torture - Fionnuala Ni Aoilain: The European Convention on Human Rights and its Prohibition on Torture - Oren Gross: The Prohibition on Torture and the Limits of the Law - REFLECTIONS ON THE POST SEPTEMBER 11 DEBATE ABOUT LEGALIZING TORTURE - Alan Dershowitz: Tortured Reasoning - Elaine Scarry: Five Errors in the Reasoning of Alan Dershowitz - Richard A. Posner: Torture, Terrorism, and Interrogation - Richard H. Weisberg: Loose Professionalism, or Why Lawyers Take the Lead on Torture 
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Essays by lawyers, political theorists, and social scientists on the advisability of maintaining the absolute ban on torture and what it says about our societies if we do--or do not--adhere to it in all circumstances. One important question is how we define torture at all. Are "cruel and inhumane" practices that result in profound physical or mental discomfort tolerable so long as they do not meet some definition of "torture"? And how much "transparency" do we really want with regard to interrogation practices? Is "don't ask, don't tell" an acceptable response to those who concern themselves about these practices? Contributors include noted Ariel Dorfman, Elaine Scarry, Alan Dershowitz, Judge Richard Posner, Michael Walzer, Jean Bethke Elshtain, and other lawyers from both the United States and abroad.”
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Liscano, Carlos. Translated from the Spanish by Elizabeth Hampsten. (2004) Truck of fools: A testimonio of torture and recovery. Vanderbilt Univ. Press, Nashville, TN.
NOTE: Autobiographical essays on the poet-novelist's thirteen years as a political prisoner in Uruguay. Topics include the author’s recollections of childhood, interactions with his captors and fellow prisoners, his descriptions of specific tortures and interrogations, his meditations on the human will to survive and the equally human capacity for evil. One essay is on how torture corrupts and distorts language.

Lohman, Diederik. (1998) Confessions at any cost: Police torture in Russia. Human Rights Watch, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: SUMMARY: Accountability - Lack of Redress - Cycle of Abuse - RECOMMENDATIONS: To the Russian Authorities - On the Matter of Acknowledging and Preventing Torture - On the Matter of Reforming the Criminal Justice System - On the Matter of Accountability - To the International Community - The United Nations- The Council of Europe - The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe - The European Union - The US Government - A PERSISTENT PATTERN OF TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT: The Methodology of Torture - Sustained Beatings - “Slonik” and Plastic Bags - Electroshock - Suspension and Trussing - Torture by Proxy - Threats of Violence - MEDICAL EVIDENCE OF TORTURE: Access to a Forensic Expert - Access to a Medical Doctor for Former Detainees - Detainees Access to Medical Doctors - Death in Custody or Permanent Physical Damage  -THE DETENTION PROCESS: Informal Detentions - Detention on Administrative Charges - Torture and Ill-treatment at the Time of Detention  - Access to Lawyers - TORTURE AND CONFESSION EVIDENCE: The Process of Securing Confessions - Reliance on Confession Evidence - Judicial Refusal to Exclude Coerced Confessions - THE VICTIMS: Minors - Oleg Fetisov Ekaterinburg - Igor Afonkin Baikalsk, Irkutsk province - Aleksei Alekseev Ekaterinburg - Women - THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK: Prohibition and Criminaliztion of Torture and Ill-Treatment - Forced Confessions in Court/The Right not to Testify against Oneself - Investigation of Torture Allegations - Redress and Compensation - HOLDING RUSSIA TO ITS INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS: United Nations – Committee against Torture - Special Rapporteur on Torture - Detention Policies, Court Review, and Length of Detention - Conditions in Detention - Recommendations - Council of Europe - Committee for the Prevention of Torture - Directorates for Human Rights and Legal Affairs - United States of America - CRISIS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: The Police Force - Personnel Recruitment and Turnover - Material Difficulties and Workload - Police Extortion and Violence - The Procuracy - The Judiciary - The Legal Profession - STALLED REFORM: Institutional Reform - Problems Reforming the Procuracy - Reforms of the Judiciary - Pressure to Convict - Crime Policy Reform - Absence of Public Monitoring over Places of Detention - A Predisposition to Brutal Methods - ACCOUNTABILITY: The Procuracy Inquiry – Superficiality - Delays - Criminal Investigation and Court Action ­ - The Case of Vitalii Sokolov - The Case of Timofei Petrov - The Case of Oleg Fetisov - The Case of Sergei Kolosovskii - The Case of Mikhail Sobolev - The Case of Andrei Getsko - Convictions - The Case of Oleg Igonin - Complaints to the Russian Ombudsman - Compensation for Damage - Fear as a Deterrent to Complaints - RUSSIAS OFFICIAL REACTION TO TORTURE: President and Presidential Structures  - Ministry of Internal Affairs - Procuracy General - State Duma - Appendices: UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE - EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF TORTURE - The Committee’s November 1998 Visit - The Committee’s September 1999 Visit - LETTER FROM RUSSIAS OMBUDSMAN - RESPONSE FROM THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR -DECISION OF THE PRESIDENTIAL HUMAN RIGHT S CHAMBER- SEPARATE RULING OF SUPREME COURT
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MacHovec, F. J. (1989) Interview and interrogation: A scientific approach. C. C.Thomas, Springfield, IL
TABLE OF CONTENTS: You: Who are you? -- Physical and emotional factors and forces that personality -- Needs and motivation -- Life stages -- Them: Who are they?-- Major personality theories -- Defense mechanisms -- What's abnormal? Neurotic needs -- Interaction -- Nonverbal behaviors: Frequency, intensity, range -- Verbal behavior: Transactions, P-A-C ego states -- Interview -- Special applications -- Crime, news, intelligence -- Cult crime and ritual abuse -- Uncooperative witnesses and countermeasures -- Job interviews, resume and application analysis, performance evaluation, stress interview -- Interrogation -- The criminal mind and evil -- Sociopaths and psychopaths -- Minor crimes -- Interrogation strategy -- Interrogating violent people -- Courtroom survival skills -- Appendix. Interrogation opinionnaire -- References -- Index.
NOTE: (from the preface) This book is for anyone who interviews or interrogates others. It applies to a variety of settings: job or school interviewing, legal practice, church work, medicine, mental health, security, news and investigative reporting, military debriefing and intelligence, law enforcement, sales and service industries. Obtaining information from others in today's world of multimedia information requires a thorough knowledge of human nature and sophisticated communications skills. Those are the two goals of this book. The major emphasis is on scientific interview and interrogation based on the latest information on personality and behavior, emotion and motivation, needs and defenses, what is normal and what is abnormal.

Meeropol, Rachel et al. (2005.) America's disappeared: Detainees, secret imprisonment, and the "War on Terror.” Seven Stories Press, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:  Introduction - Open letter to president George W. Bush from former detainees / Shafiq Rasul and Asif Iqbal - The Guantanamo prisoners / Michael Ratner  - Statement / Maher Arar - Torture, "stress and duress," and rendition as counterterrorism tools / Steven MacPherson Watt - The road to Abu Ghraib / Reed Brody - Statement / Kenneth Scott  - Looking for hope: life as an immigration detainee / Phillip Marcus - Statement / Hemnauth Mohabir - The post-9/11 terrorism investigation and immigration detention / Rachel Meeropol - Statement / Mohamed Maddy - What does it mean to be an "enemy combatant"? / Barbara Olshansky - Poem for my mother.
NOTE: From the Publisher: “…features first person accounts by individuals who have experienced the horrors of executive detention, including former Guantánamo detainees Shafiq Rasul and Asif Iqbal; Maher Arar, the Canadian citizen the United States sent to Syria to be interrogated and tortured for nearly a year; and many other non-citizens who were wrongly swept up in the post-9/11 terrorism investigations. These narratives appear alongside political and legal analysis of the Bush Administration's controversial post-9/11 detention practices.”
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Ortiz, Dianna and Davis, Patricia. (2002) The blindfold's eyes: My journey from torture to truth. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY.
NOTE: Written by an  American nun who was abducted in Guatemala, raped, tortured, and forced to torture another woman. She escaped and has spent the rest of her life coping with the after effects and spreading the word about U.S. complicity in Guatemala's repressive political system and in the torture and murder of thousands of innocent Guatemalans.

Pearson, Nancy L., Lopez, June Pagaduan and Cunningham. Margaret. (eds.) (1998) Recipes for healing: Gender-sensitive care for women survivors of torture. Univ. of the Philippines, Quezon City, The Philippines.

Peel, Michael and Iacopino, Vincent.  (ed.) (2002) The medical documentation of torture. Greenwich Medical Media, San Francisco, CA and London, England.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: The problem of torture - Doctors and torture - General considerations - Teamwork in the documentation of torture - Torture and the international criminal court - History taking - Physical exam - acute - Physical exam - chronic - Examination following specific forms of torture - Sexual abuse of females - Sexual abuse of males  -  Psychiatry overview - Electric shock injuries - The use of radiology.
NOTE: Medical evidence of torture can be gathered both immediately and many years after the event. Documentation of torture is needed to bring charges in court against individuals or organizations, verification of allegations of torture by organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and Physicians for Human Rights, and documentation of torture in support of individual claims for refugee status.

Perry, John. (2005) Torture: Religious ethics and national security. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction: A Catholic perspective on torture - Why torture is different from other warlike actions - Why torture? - Why torture is wrong - Torturers - The tortured - The church and torture in the twentieth century - Justice and forgiveness - Conclusion.
NOTE: From the Publisher:  “Reviewing the history and practice of torture, and the arguments used to justify it, Perry takes us into minds of both the torturers and their victims. Ultimately, showing why torture is different from other acts of war, and why it is fundamentally immoral: "not only because it violates the dignity we owe to the human person but also because it directly or indirectly degrades any society that would tolerate it."

Peters, Edward. (1996) Torture. Univ. of PA Press, Philadelphia, PA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Torture Past and Present - A Delicate and Dangerous Business - The Queen of Proofs and the Queen of Torments - The Sleep of Reason -  “Engines of the State not of Law” -  “To become, or to remain, human” - A Bibliographical Essay - Bibliographical Addendum: Torture: History and Practice - Appendix: Judicial Torture: Documents and Commentary - Index
NOTE: An analytic history of torture from Greek and Roman times to the twentieth century with the emphasis on how societal structures encourage or discourage the use of torture. Well documented, with pivotal source documents.
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Protacio-Marcelino, Elizabeth et al. (2000) Torture of children in situations of armed conflict: The Philippine experience. Psychosocial Trauma Program, Center for Integrative and Development Studies, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, the Philippines.

Roth, Kenneth and Worden, Minky. (eds.) (2005) Torture: Does it make us safer? Is it ever OK?: A human rights perspective. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.

Stover, E. and Nightingale, E. (1985) The breaking of bodies and minds: Torture, psychiatric abuse, and the health professions. Freeman, NY, NY.

Schauer, Maggie, Neuner, Frank  and Elbert, Thomas. (2004) Narrative exposure therapy: A short-term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror, or torture. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Cambridge, MA.
NOTE: From the Publisher: “This book is the first practical manual describing a new and successful short-term treatment for traumatic stress and PTSD called Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET). NET has proved successful in projects in areas such as Kosova, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Nigeria, as well as in controlled trials in Gainesville, FL and Louvain, Belgium. Three to six sessions can be sufficient to afford considerable relief. Part I of the manual describes the theoretical background. Part II covers the therapeutic approach in detail, with practical advice and tools. Part III then focuses on special issues such as dealing with challenging moments during therapy, defense mechanisms for the therapist, and ethical issues. A series of appendices include further practical aides such as a handout on depression, a drug-dependency questionnaire, and an informed consent form.”

Schulz, William F. (2007) The phenomenon of torture: Readings and commentary. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.
NOTE: From the Publisher: “Edited and with an introduction by the former Executive Director of Amnesty International USA, The Phenomenon of Torture draws on the writings of torture victims themselves, such as the Argentinean journalist Jacobo Timerman, as well as leading scholars like Elaine Scarry, author of The Body in Pain. It includes classical works by Voltaire, Jeremy Bentham, Hannah Arendt, and Stanley Milgram, as well as recent works by historian Adam Hochschild and psychotherapist Joan Golston. And it addresses new developments in efforts to combat torture, such as the designation of rape as a war crime and the use of the doctrine of universal jurisdiction to prosecute perpetrators. Designed for the student and scholar alike, it is, in sum, an anthology of the best and most insightful writing about this most curious and common form of abuse. Juan E. Mndez, Special Advisor to the United Nations Secretary General on the Prevention of Genocide and himself a victim of torture, provides a foreword.”
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Timerman, Jacobo. (1981) Prisoner without a name, Cell without a number. Univ. of WI Press, Madison, WI. And London, England.
NOTE: Adapted from a reader's review in Google Books: Jacobo Timerman was the publisher of a newspaper, which criticized the violence of both the left and the right in 1970s Argentina. He was detained without charge by the military junta in 1977 and held in clandestine concentration camps until his sudden release and deportation to Israel in 1979. Parallel to his personal narrative of extreme torture, Timerman  explores wider psychological and political themes, including Argentina's intense anti-Semitism. He feels that public silence and passivity, believing in the inevitability of violence, can pave the way to totalitarianism and that the world has learned nothing from the Holocaust.

Wilson, John P.  and Drozdek, Boris. (eds.) (2004) Broken spirits: The treatment of traumatized asylum seekers, refugees, war, and torture victims. Brunner-Routledge, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface Part I: Theoretical, Conceptual and Socio-Cultural Considerations Introduction to Part I - John P. Wilson 1: From Hope for a Better Life to Broken Spirits: An Introduction - V D. Volkan 2: The Global Challenge of Asylum - Derrick Silove 3: A Global Perspective of Torture, Political Violence and Health - Jens Modvig and James Jaranson 4: Ethnocultural Considerations in the Treatment of Refugees and Asylum Seekers - Jorge Aroche and Mariano Coello 5: Assessing PTSD and Co-Morbidity: Issues in Differential Diagnosis - Alexander McFarlane Part II: Broken Spirits: Traumatic Injury to Culture, the Self and Personality Introduction to Part II - John P. Wilson 6: The Broken Spirit: Posttaumatic Damage to the Self - John P. Wilson 7: Public Mental Health and Culture: Disasters as a Challenge to Western Mental Health Care Models, the Self and PTSD  - Joop de Jong Part III: Post-Traumatic Treatments: Guidelines for Practitioners Introduction to Part III  - John P. Wilson 8: Creating a Safe Therapeutic Sanctuary - Guus van der Veer and Adeline van Waning 9: Strengthening Psychological Health in War Victims and Refugees  - Silvana Turkovic, Johannes E. Hovens and Rudolf Gregurek 10: Uncovering: Trauma Focused Treatment Techniques with Asylum Seekers - Boris Drzdek and John P. Wilson 11: Empathy, Trauma Transmission and Counter-Transference in Posttraumatic Psychotherapy - John P. Wilson 12: Clinical Supervision for Trauma Therapists - Johan Lansen and Ton Haans 13: The Presence of a Third Party: A Dialogical View on Interpreter-Assisted Treatment - Hanneke Bot and Cecilia Wadensjo - Part IV: Non-Verbal and Experiential Therapies - Introduction to Part IV - John P. Wilson -14: Psychomotor Therapy: Healing by Action  - Bram de Winter, Boris Drozdek 15: Body Psychotherapy with Survivors of Torture  - Sylvia Karcher 16: About a Weeping Willow, a Phoenix Rising from its Ashes and Building a House: Art Therapy with Refugees: Three Different Perspectives  - Truus Wertheim-Cahen, Marion van Dijk, Karin Schouten, Inge Roozen and Boris Drozdek 17: Sounds of Trauma - Jaap Orth, Letty Doorschodt, Jack Verburgt and Boris Drozdek - Part V: Treatment of Special Populations: Gender and Developmental Considerations - Introduction to Part V- John P. Wilson -18: Where Meanings, Sorrow and Hope have a Resident Permit: Treatment of Families and Children - Joachim Walter and Julia Bala 19: In Between: Adolescent Refugees in Exile - Hubertus Adam and Jelly van Essen 20: Gender Specific Treatment - Marianne C. Kastrup and Libby Arcel- Part VI:zd Medical, Surgical and Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Refugees and Torture Victims - Introduction to Part VI- John P. Wilson 21: Psychopharmacology for Refugee and Asylum Seeker Patients - J. David Kinzie and Matthew J. Friedman 22: Surgical Approach to Victims of Torture and PTSD - Marianne Juhler 23: Psychosocial Rehabilitation - Solvig Ekblad and James Jaranson - Part VII: Legal, Moral and Political Issues in the Treatment Process - Introduction to Part VII - John P. Wilson 24: Legal Issues in Work with Asylum Seekers  - Jane Herlihy, Carla Ferstman and Stuart W. Turner 25: The Politics of Asylum and Immigration Detention: Advocacy, Ethics and the Professional Role of the Therapist - Zachary Steele, Sarah Mares, Louise Newman, Bijou Blick and Michael Dudley, Survivors psychology, Torture psychology.
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Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on International Operations. United States Congress. Senate. U.S. policy toward victims of torture: hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, first session, July 30, 1999. Washington, DC. For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 2000.
Preview the Congressional Record in Google Books

Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights, United States Congress.  United States policy towards victims of torture: hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, first session, on June 29, 1999. Washington, DC.  U.S. G.P.O.
For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office (2000)

Committee on International Relations, United States Congress. The Cuban program: torture of American prisoners by Cuban agents: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, first session, Thursday, November 4, 1999. Washington, DC. (2000, Congressional Sales Office, Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.)

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment? Fourth report of Canada covering the period April 1996 to April 2000. (2002) Canadian Heritage, Ottawa, Canada.
For full text, see:
For wikipedia article, see:

Directory of services and resources for survivors of torture. (2003) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD.

Hidden scandal, secret shame: Torture and ill-treatment of children. (2000) Amnesty International Publications, NY, NY.

Istanbul Protocol: Manual on the effective investigation and documentation of torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. (2004) Office of the United Nations, High Commissioner for Human Rights. United Nations, NY, NY.

Torture worldwide: An affront to human dignity. (2000) Amnesty International Publications, NY, NY.
NOTE: From the Publisher: “In police stations and prison cells, on city streets and in remote villages, torturers continue to devastate the lives of countless victims. For some the result is an agonizing death. For survivors life can never be the same again. Some scars heal. Others continue to disfigure the mind and body long after the torture has ended. This report draws on recent reports of torture and  ill-treatment from more than 150 countries. The victims are criminal suspects as well as political prisoners, the disadvantaged as well as the dissident, people targeted because of their identity as well as their beliefs. They are women as well as men, children as well as adults. Action to eradicate torture is needed urgently and this report launches a worldwide Amnesty International campaign against torture. Drawing on decades of experience in researching and working against torture, Torture worldwide An affront to human dignity focuses on three major areas - preventing torture, confronting discrimination and overcoming impunity. “

Tortured voices: Personal accounts of Burma's interrogation centres. (1998) All Burma Students' Democratic Front, Bangkok, Thailand.
NOTE: Personal accounts of nine former Burmese political prisoners involved in the pro-democracy movement in Burma.



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