Ritual Abuse: Psychology
Adams, Jeanne. (2000) Childhood ritual abuse: A resource manual for criminal justice and social service. See http://www.mrlight.org/order.html
NOTE: A research review of statistics, cases, investigation models, interview suggestions and the symptomatology seen in adult and children survivors. Examines elements somewhat typical and controversial to these cases -- psychogenic amnesia/memory repression, cult programming techniques, animal and human sacrifice, and cult organization.
Ammerman, R. T. (1991) Case studies in family violence. Plenum Press: NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Part I. General issues -- Family violence: A clinical overview -- Social and ecological issues in violence toward children -- The ecology of domestic aggression toward adult victims -- Legal issues in violence toward children -- Legal issues in violence toward adults -- Medical issues with child victims of family violence -- Medical issues with adult victims of family violence -- Part II. Violence toward children -- Child physical abuse -- Child neglect -- Child sexual abuse -- Incest -- Ritual abuse -- Maltreatment of handicapped children -- The child witness of family violence -- Psychological and emotional abuse of children -- Part III. Violence toward adults -- Wife battering -- Psychological maltreatment of spouses -- Marital rape -- Elder abuse -- Domestic homicide -- Index.
SUMMARY: Case studies in family violence elucidates the complex and multidisciplinary clinical issues encountered in treating family violence through the investigation of individual case examples of the different forms of family violence. Chapters detail cases reflecting various forms of abuse, as well as the social, legal, and medical issues involved in violence against both children and adults. Several recently recognized types of maltreatment are explored, including the abuse and neglect of handicapped children, the child witness of family violence, and psychological, emotional, and ritual abuse. Other topics covered include wife battering, elder maltreatment, marital rape, psychological mistreatment of spouses, and domestic homicide. All chapters devoted to specific forms of abuse use the same format, examining medical, social, family, and legal issues; the assessment of psychopathology; and a variety of treatment options.
Anon. Understanding Ritual Abuse: A Guide for Self-Empowerment for Ritual Abuse Survivors. Survivors of Incest Anonymous World Service Office, Inc, Baltimore, MD.
NOTE: According to this booklet, "ritual abuse" is "a calculated, systematic process whereby victims may be brainwashed and programmed, using many different techniques, to disown and distort our own sense of self and reality." In such abuse "triggers" and programming may have been placed around primary biological and survival functions, including eating, sleeping, breathing, sexuality, elimination, emotions, the five senses, and human bonding. Victims may have been forced and manipulated into breaking primary bonds to survive emotionally and physically. This may have involved forced participation in the torture, murder, dismemberment, and cannibalism of animals and humans that victims may have known and even loved. The booklet acknowledges that choosing and pursuing healing from such abuse is no easy task, since the behaviors conditioned, manipulated, and used to cope under the abuse will continue to be triggered under various circumstances. Emotional needs are so many and so intense that relationships will be difficult and frustrating to initiate and maintain. A variety of resources, groups, and persons will be required to receive the healing support needed, since no one person is likely to be capable of providing the healing love and understanding the victim seeks. Healing is the process of discovering what happened in the victimization and how victims survived emotionally. This booklet discusses the identification of survival skills and adaptive behaviors as well as the importance of self-acceptance and self-empowerment. Also included is a brochure that outlines the stages of reaction to trauma: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
Anon. Lessons We Have Learned: A Survival Guide. PARC-VRAMC, 5251 Hwy. 153, #223, Hixson, TN 37343-4910.
NOTE: A compilation of advice shared by nine recovering adult, governmental mind-control survivors, most of whom are also recovering from ritual abuse. Contains a large resource section.
Basoglu, M, ed. (1992) Torture and its consequences: Current treatment approaches. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England and NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction M. Basoglu Part I. Torture and its Consequences: 1. The prevention of torture and the clinical care of survivors: a field in need of a new science R. Mollica 2. The physical sequelae of torture G. Skylv 3. Psychosocial consequences of torture: current knowledge and evidence F. Somnier, P. Vesti, M. Kastrup and I. K. Genefke 4. Psychological effects of torture: an empirical study of tortured and non-tortured non-political prisoners M. Paker, Paker and S. Yksel 5. Psychosocial consequences for tortured refugees seeking asylum and refugee status in Europe R. Baker 6. Long-term effects of torture in former prisoners of war T. W. Miller 7. The Holocaust: survivors and their children N. Solkoff Part II. Theory: 8. Psychobiological consequences of severe trauma J. A. Saporta and B. A. Van der Kolk 9. The role of uncontrollable and unpredictable stress in post-traumatic stress responses in torture survivors M. Basoglu and S. Mineka Part III. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Classification: 10. Psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): boundaries of the syndrome R. McNally 11. Overview: the assessment and diagnosis of torture events and symptoms R. F. Mollica and Y. Caspi-Yavin Part IV. Rehabilitation Programmes for Torture Survivors: 12. Organization of care and rehabilitation services for victims of torture and other forms of organized violence: a review of current issues L. H. M. van Willigen 13. Multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of torture survivors S. Bjholm and P. Vesti 14. Sexual torture and the treatment of its consequences I. Lunde and J. Ortmann Part V. Psychotherapy: 15. Psychodynamic approaches in the treatment of torture survivors E. Bustos 16. Psychotherapy for torture survivors P. Vesti and M. Kastrup 17. Current trends in the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms T. M. Keane, A. M. Albano and D. D. Blake 18. Behavioural and cognitive approach in the treatment of torture-related psychological problems M. Basoglu Part VI. Torture in Particular Countries: Experience with Survivors of Torture in their Home country: 19. Torture in Argentina D. Kordon, L. Edelman, D. Lagos, E. Nicoletti, D. Kersner and M. Groshaus 20. Torture and the helping professions in South Africa T. Dowdall 21. Torture in Pakistan M. Mehdi 22. Rehabilitation of survivors of torture and political violence under a continuing stress situation: the Philippine experience A. A. Parong, E. Protacio-Marcelino, S. Estrado-Claudio, J. Pagaduan-Lopez and M. V. Cabildo Part VII. Modern Ethics and International Law: 23. Modern ethics and international law B. Sorensen.
Bass, Ellen and Davis, Laura. (1988). The courage to heal: A guide for women survivors of sexual abuse, 3rd edition. Harper and Row, NY, NY.
NOTE: Resource guide for adult survivors of sexual abuse; new edition includes some information on ritual abuse. Also available in Spanish.
Bean, Barbara and Bennett, Shari (1993) The me nobody knows: A guide for teen survivors. Lexington Books, NY, NY.
NOTE: A workbook and informational resource for teenagers who have been sexually abused. Contains material on incest and ritual abuse.
Bitz, Margaret (1990). “The impact of ritualistic abuse for sexually abused children and their adoptive families.” in Adoption and the sexually abused child. McNamara, Joan and McNamara, Bernard H. (eds.) Family Resources Adoption Program, 226 North Highland Avenue, Ossining, NY, 10562.
NOTE: Provides a definition of ritual abuse, outlines range of behaviors ritually abused children exhibit, and offers advice to adoptive parents.
Blume, E. Sue, (1990) Secret survivors. John Wiley and Sons, Ny,NY. Also Secret survivors: Uncovering incest and its after effects in women. Ballantine Books: NY, NY.
Boyd, Andrew. (1991) Blasphemous rumours: Is satanic ritual abuse fact or fantasy? An investigation. Fount Paperbacks (HarperCollins), London.
NOTE: Available from The Reachout Trust, 24 Ormond Road, Richmond, Surrey, TW10 6TH, England. This book is the most comprehensive on the subject to be published in Britain, providing background to cases and interviews with care-givers and survivors. It focuses on evidence, rather than belief, and argues that, however unpalatable, there is far too much evidence of the existence of satanic ritual abuse to dismiss SRA, as many are doing, as a modern urban myth.
Boyd, Andrew. (1996) Dangerous obsessions. Marshall Pickering, London.
Braun, Bennett G. (1997) “Pharmacological guidelines for sadistically abused patients: From routine to critical issues.” In Fraser, George A (ed.). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC. pp. 167-81.
NOTE: Many sadistically abused patients have multisystem problems and disorders requiring the care of many specialists. I have found that in too many cases of severely traumatized patients, medical problems are not diagnosed or, if they are, are treated incorrectly. In this chapter, I introduced some of the more common medical and psychological problems of sadistically abused patients and the pharmacological interventions.
Briere, J. (1989). Therapy for adults molested as children: Beyond survival. Springer Publishing, NY, NY.
Briere, John, et al (ed.) (1996) The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
NOTE: Child abuse professionals contributed chapters on child maltreatment, medical and legal issues, reporting and prevention, and delivery of services; includes chapter on "Ritualistic Abuse of Children" by Susan J. Kelley.
Bromley, David G. and Melton, J. Gordon. (eds.) (2002) Cults, religion, and violence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England and NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Violence and religion in perspective David G. Bromley and J. Gordon Melton 2. Dramatic denouements David G. Bromley 3. Challenging misconceptions about the new religions-violence connection J. Gordon Melton and David G. Bromley 4. Sources of volatility in religious movements Thomas Robbins 5. Crises of charismatic legitimacy and violent behavior in new religious movements Lorne L. Dawson 6. Public agency involvement in government-religious movement confrontations Stuart A. Wright 7. Watching for violence: a comparative analysis of the roles of five types of cult-watching groups Eileen Barker 8. Mass suicide and the Branch Davidians John R. Hall 9. Occult masters and the temple of doom: the fiery end of the Solar Temple Massimo Introvigne and Jean-Francois Mayer 10. Dramatic confrontations: Aum Shinrikyo against the world Ian Reader 11. Making sense of the Heaven's Gate suicides Robert W. Balch and David Taylor12. Lessons from the past, perspective for the future David G. Bromley and J. Gordon Melton.
NOTE: (from the publisher) The authors, leading international experts on religious movements and violent behavior, focus on the four major episodes of cult violence during the last decade: the tragic conflagration that engulfed the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas; the deadly sarin gas attack by the Aum Shinrikyo in Tokyo; the murder-suicides by the Solar Temple in Switzerland and Canada; and the collective suicide by the members of Heaven's Gate. They explore the dynamics leading to these dramatic episodes in North America, Europe, and Asia, and offer insights into the general relationship between violence and religious cults in contemporary society. The authors conclude that these events usually involve some combination of internal and external dynamics through which a new religious movement and society become polarized.
Brown, Daniel P. Scheflin, Alan W. and Hammond, D. Corydon. (1998) Memory, trauma treatment, and the law. W.W. Norton, NY, NY
Brown, Dee. (1996) Satanic ritual abuse: A handbook for therapists: How to deal effectively with the multiple personalities of ritual abusesurvivors. Blue Moon Press, Denver, CO.
NOTE: A warm, encouraging introduction to the treatment of adult survivors of ritual abuse, written for therapists beginning work in this area.
Brown, Sandra L. (1991) Counseling victims of violence. Am. Assoc. Counseling and Development, Alexandria, VA
NOTE:This book examines the complex issues and techniques involved in treating survivors of traumatic experiences. The techniques described are essentially developmental intervention strategies. Specific areas covered in the discussion include: domestic violence, sexual trauma, assault, robbery, child abuse, spouse abuse, murder, ritual abuse, and recreational and group therapies.
Bryant, Doris, Kessler, Judy, and Shirar, Lynda.(1992) The family inside; Working with the multiple. W. W. Norton, NY, NY.
NOTE: About therapy with a ritual abuse survivor.
Bryant, Doris and Kessler, Judy. (1996) Beyond integration: One multiple's journey. W. W. Norton & Co., NY, NY.
NOTE: A therapist and her ritual abuse survivor client describe the course of therapy and describe integration and issues encountered post-integration.
Burgess, Ann Wolbert (ed.) (1984). Child pornography and sex rings. Lexington Books, Lexington, MA.
Burgess, Ann Wolbert and Grant, Christine A. (1988). Children traumatized in sex rings. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 550, Arlington, VA 22201-3052
NOTE: Includes chapters on assessment, types of sex rings, response patterns of traumatized children, interviewing victims, treatment and legal issues
Clark, John. (2003) The healing of satanically ritually abused multiple personality disorder. Authorhouse, Bloomington, IN.
Clawar, Stanley S. (1991) Children held hostage: Dealing with programmed and brainwashed children. American Bar Association Press, Chicago, IL.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:: Brainwashing and programming: Definitional perspectives, levels of awareness, and stages -- Brainwashing techniques -- Motivational factors: Uncovering the programmer's themes and processes -- Impact and influence factors: The effects on children and relationships -- Deprogramming factors: Forms of intervention -- The female factors: Why women programme more than men-- Findings, conclusions, surprises, and implications of the study -- Appendix: Research techniques and sample characteristics -- Glossary of programming/brainwashing terms.
NOTE: (from the introduction) This treatise is based on years of experience counseling families in divorce and evaluating custody litigation. It should provide guidance to the bar, bench, and mental health professionals in ascertaining whether a child has been intentionally brainwashed or alienated from one parent by the other parent, and if so, it offers methods of dealing with these children.
Clay, Colin. (1996) More than a survivor: Memories of satanic ritual abuse and the paths which lead to healing. 1337 College Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W6.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Warning - Forward (Karl Oberdieck, MD) - Introduction- Where adult memories begin- Triggers - The satanic lifestyle- Survivors' voices - Ritual abuse - Dissociation and multiple personality adaptation - The journey towards healing - Recommended reading - Index.
SUMMARY: More than a survivor covers a number of topics in clear and accessible language and is an excellent introduction to the topic of ritual abuse. Because it covers so much ground, from specific rituals to Nazism to different approaches to healing, no one chapter is all-inclusive. The author, an Anglican ecumenical pastoral counselor at the University of Saskatchewan, speaks in a gentle, non-authoritarian voice. Readers should be prepared for reproductions of survivor art, drawings of satanic symbols, alphabets, and graphic prose and poetry by survivors. Canadians will be particularly interested in the discussion of some Canadian criminal investigations and trials and of 'Bad Medicine,' the perversion of Native American practices.
Coffey, Rebecca. (1998) Unspeakable truths and happy endings: Human cruelty and the new trauma therapy. Sidran Foundation Press, Baltimore, MD. http://www.sidran.org/
Cook, C. (1991) Understanding ritual abuse through a study of thirty-three ritual abuse survivors from thirteen different states. Privately printed, Ritual Abuse Project, Sacramento,
Cox, Pat, Kershaw, Sheila and Trotter, Joy (eds.). (2000) Child sexual assault: Feminist perspectives. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England and Palgrave, NY, NY.
NOTE: Discusses organized abuse, child sexual assault, women abusers, and satanic abuse.
Crewdson, J. (1988) By silence betrayed. Little, Brown, Boston, MA.
NOTE: An over-view of research on child sexual abuse, with a chapter on the McMartin case.
Daniels, April and Scott, Carol. (1992) Paperdolls: Healing from sexual abuse in Mormon neighborhoods. Palingenesia Press. Available from Wasatch Book Distributors, PO Box 11776, Salt Lake City, UT 84147.
Daraul, Arkon.. (1962) A History of Secret Societies. Citadel Press, Secaucus, NJ.
Davis, Laura. (1992) Allies in healing: When the person you love as sexually abused as a child. Harper Collins, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Part 1: Partner's questions: The basics: Allies in healing: My needs and feelings: Dealing with Crises: More about sexual abuse: Intimacy and communication:: Sex: Family issues: Final thoughts. Part 2: Partner's Stories: Introduction: Jack's Story "Recovering together:" Marise's Story "She works really hard and so do I:" Noah's story "Crisis and cult abuse:" Eric's story "The support of others:" Lorraine's story "Breaking up:" Richard's story "A year at a time:" Scott's story "Building trust over time:" Virginia's story "Forging a commitment:" Healing books and other resources: Index.
Deikman. Arthur J. (1990) Wrong way home: Uncovering the patterns of cult behavior in American society. Beacon, Boston, MA.
DeVito, Robert A. "The use of amytal interviews in the treatment of an exceptionally complex case of multiple personality disorder." Kluft, Richard P and Fine, Catherine G (ed.). Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC. pp. 227-40.
NOTE: The author relates his experience with the use of amytal-facilitated interviews in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Following one patient from diagnosis through integration, he notes that in dealing with perceptions and cognitions previously hidden in the layered alter systems (127 personality elements were documented in this case), the patient has been experiencing a series of PTSD symptoms, particularly flashbacks to childhood abuse experiences.
KEY WORDS Adults - Americans - Bereavement - Dissociative Identity Disorder - Females - Hypnotherapy - Narcoanalysis - Psychiatric Inpatients - Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy - Psychobiology - PTSD - Ritual Abuse - Survivors
Dolan, Y. M. (1991). Resolving sexual abuse: Solution-focused therapy and Ericksonian hypnosis for adult survivors. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
NOTE: An experienced therapist presents a number of useful techniques for working with sexual abuse survivors.
Doyle, Joan S. and Stoop, David. (1991) "Witness and victim of multiple abuses: Collaborative treatment of 10-year-old Randy in a residential treatment center." In Nancy Boyd Webb (ed.) Play therapy with children in crisis: A casebook for practitioners. New York: Guilford Press, NY, NY. pp. 111-140.
NOTE: Describes the use of play therapy to treat a ten-year-old boy diagnosed with PTSD resulting from chronic, severe abuse and torture (ritual abuse). Treatment was performed in a secure residential treatment facility for children.
Doyle, Joan S. and Stoop, David. (1999) “Witness and victim of multiple abuses: Case of Randy, age 10, in a residential treatment center, and follow-up at age 19 in prison.” In Webb, Nancy Boyd (ed.). Play therapy with children in crisis: Individual, group, and family treatment, 2nd ed. Guilford Press, NY, NY. pp. 131-163.
NOTE: Describes the use of play therapy to treat a ten-year-old boy diagnosed with PTSD resulting from chronic, severe abuse and torture (ritual abuse). Treatment was performed in a secure residential treatment facility for children. A "Follow-up: Randy, age 19" updates the case history.
Duncan, C.W. (1994). The fractured mirror: Healing multiple personality disorder. Health Communications, Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL.
NOTE: Overview of MPD. Presents therapeutic strategie and includes chapters on cult and ritual abuse.
Elliott, Michelle (ed.) (1994) Female sexual abuse of children. Guilford Publications, NY, NY.
NOTE: Presents statistics and treatment issues, as well as accounts from survivors of female perpetrators.
Everstine, D. S. and Everstine, L. (1993). The trauma response: Treatment for emotional injury. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
Fairholm, J. and Moore, T. (1990) Child abuse prevention program for adolescents, Part I. Canadian Red Cross, Ottawa, ON Canada
NOTE: Presents background information and a curriculum outline for use in helping Canadian adolescents understand the nature and impacts of child and adolescent abuse and neglect, in involving them in a dialogue about their hurts and experiences, and in becoming able to protect themselves and others. Adolescents describe their vulnerabilities, inner turmoil, and insecurities. The students' disclosures are combined with information about the nature and impacts of adolescent maltreatment, emotional maltreatment, physical abuse and neglect, abusive families, and child sexual abuse. Sex offenders, ritual abuse, and the components of effective intervention and treatment are also discussed. Communication methods to use in prevention efforts are discussed, with emphasis on basic techniques, public speaking, student involvement techniques, ways to handle stage fright, cross- cultural communications, and leadership of discussions. Figures, checklists, outlines, and chapter reference lists.
Fewster, Gerald. ed. (1990) In the shadow of satan: The ritual abuse of children. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Canada.
NOTE: Special issue of Journal of child and youth care; includes bibliographical references.
Finney, Lynne D. (1992) Reach for the rainbow. Putnam Publishing Group, NY, NY.
Forward, Susan and Buck, Craig. (1979) Betrayal of innocence and its devastation. Penguin, NY, NY.
Fraser, George A (ed.) (1997) The dilemma of ritual abuse: cautions and guides for therapists. Am. Psych. Press, Washington, DC.
NOTE: This book is for the therapist and others interested in the ritual abuse (RA) phenomenon. It is not an attempt to prove or disprove the reality of ritualized abuse; rather, it is hoped to be a guide to therapists. Clinical experience indicates that not all reports of RA are accurate. History and the legal profession will clarify whether some reports may be partially or wholly accurate. In the meantime, despite the ongoing controversy, clinicians continue to have patients seeking help for recollection they believe point to ritualized abuses earlier in their lives. This book offers advice on approaches that should be considered when a therapist faces a patient presenting with a history containing elements pertaining to abuses in satanic and/or sadistic ritualized settings.
Fraser, George A. (1997) "Visions of memories: A patient's visual representation of ritual abuse ceremonies." In Fraser, George A (ed.). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC. pp. 183-196
NOTE: Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words. The artwork included in this chapter was done by a patient who has been in therapy with me. She has given permission for them to be published in this book. Except for the first three, the patient drew these pictures during therapy to convey what she believes are her memories of ceremonies in a satanic cult. She believes these memories were withheld by alter personalities who were too frightened to tell but felt safe to convey through drawings. Later, I was able to discuss the drawings with the patient and ask her to explain what they represented. These discussions helped the patient understand the belief system of inner personality states who claimed they had been abused in a satanic cult in perverse and sadistic ways. I do not know, of course, whether or not the drawings represent true memories. If they do, this is probably the closest most of us will ever get to see satanic ritual ceremonies. Because the drawings portray so well what many therapists are being told, I felt that it would be helpful to include this pictorial chapter.
Fraser, George A. "Ritual abuse: Lessons learned as a therapist." In Fraser, George A (ed.). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC. pp. 119-135.
NOTE: This chapter is not an argument for or against the reality of ritual abuse (RA) but rather is a sharing of my clinical experiences and dilemmas in working in this field. I divide this chapter into three sections: (1) Lessons learned that have led me to be cautious in accepting what I am told by patients, (2) Factors that lead me to accept the possibility of RA, and (3) Changes in my approach to new patients presenting with RA histories, resulting from the previous two factors.
Fredrickson, Rene. (1992). Repressed memories; a journey to recovery from sexual abuse. Simon and Schuster, NY, NY.
Friesen, James G. (1991) Uncovering the mystery of MPD: Its shocking origins, its surprising cure. Here's Life Publishers, San Bernadino, CA.
NOTE: Christian orientation.
Friesen, James G. (1992) More than survivors: Conversations with multiple-personality clients. T. Nelson, Nashville TN,
NOTE: Christian orientation.
Gil, Eliana.(1988) Treatment of adult survivors. Launch Press, Walnut Creek CA.
Goodman, Gail, Aman, Christine and Hirschman, Jodi (1987). "Child sexual and physical abuse: Children's testimony." In S. J. Ceci, M. P. Toglia and D. F. Ross (eds.) Children's eyewitness memory. Springer-Verdag, NY, NY.
NOTE: Presents research results affirming credibility of children's reports of sexual abuse, with reference to the Country Walk case in Miami, Florida.
Goodwin, Jean M. (1993) Rediscovering childhood trauma: Historical casebook and clinical applications. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
Goodwin, Jean M. (1993) "Human vectors of trauma: Illustrations from the Marquis de Sade." in Goodwin, Jean M. (ed.) Rediscovering childhood trauma: Historical casebook and clinical applications, pp. 95-111. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
NOTE: This chapter proposes the term "sadistic abuse" as a descriptor for those extreme and severe acts of interpersonal violence (i.e., child abuse, sadistic crime, political torture, etc), which in the 1980s came to be described as ”ritual abuse.”
Goodwin, Jean M. and Attias, R. (1993). "Eating disorders in survivors of multimodal childhood abuse." In Kluft, R. P. (ed.), Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder. pp. 327-342. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC.
Goulding, R. and Schwartz,R. (1995). The mosaic mind: Empowering the tormented selves of child abuse survivors. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
Greaves G. B. (1993). “A history of MPD.” In Kluft, R. P. (ed.), Clinical perspectives multiple personality disorder. (pp. 355-380). American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC.
Greek, Adrian and Greek, Anne. (1985) Mind abuse by cults and others Positive Action Center, P.O. Box 20997, Portland OR 97220.
Greven, Philip J. (1992). Spare the child: The religious roots of punishment and the psychological impact of physical abuse. Vintage Books, NY, NY.
Halperin, David. (1995) "Guidelines for psychiatric hospitalization of ex-cultists." in Langone, Michael D (ed.) Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse, pp. 263-274. W.W.Norton, NY, NY.
NOTE: This chapter describes cases that illustrate the types of problems encountered by psychiatric hospitals treating cultists. Three broad categories of patients deserve examination: individuals who prior to cult affiliation appeared to be without significant mental illness; individuals who prior to cult affiliation evidenced significant psychopathology; and individuals who ascribe to satanism. Cult affiliation may significantly exacerbate the individual's difficulties in adaptation, whatever overt symptoms of preexisting psychopathology are present. Thus, in considering guidelines for the inpatient treatment of cult members, the relationship of the cult member to his or her family, ego strength prior to affiliation, and community resources available to the individual upon discharge need to be considered for meaningful aftercare planning. Guidelines can be best formulated and issues considered in the context provided by the examination of specific cases within the three categories outlined above. [Adapted from Text, p. 264]
Hawkins, Diane W. (2001) Supporting ritual abuse survivors. 9th ed. Restoration in Christ Ministries, Grottoes, VA.
Heller, Randall K. (1982) Deprogramming for do-it-yourselfers: A cure for the common cult. Gentle Press, P.O. Box 47, Medina, OH 44258.
Hilgard, E. R. (1977). Divided consciousness: Multiple controls in human thought and action. John Wiley and Sons, NY, NY.
Hill, Sally and Goodwin, Jean R. "Freud's notes on a seventeenth-century case of demonic possession: Understanding the uses of exorcism." in Goodwin, Jean M. (ed.) Rediscovering childhood trauma: Historical casebook and clinical applications. Am. Psych. Press, Washington DC. pp. 45-63.
NOTE: A comparison of Freud's understanding of a seventeenth-century case of demon possession and exorcism with a modern case of a patient who had been involved in a satanic cult and had experienced demon possession, and who sought out exorcism as well as psychotherapy.
Hoffman, Wendy Ann. (1995) Ascent from evil: The healing journey out of satanic abuse. Triumph Books, Chicago, IL.
Horton, Anne L., Harrison, B. Kent., and Johnson Barry L., (eds.) Confronting abuse: An LDS perspective on understanding and healing emotional, physical, sexual, psychological, and spiritual abuse. Deseret Book Co, Salt Lake City, UT.
Hudson, P.S. (1991) Ritual child abuse: Discovery, diagnosis and treatment. RandE Publishers, Saratoga, CA.
NOTE: A survey of symptoms of child survivors of extra-familial ritual abuse and a discussion of therapy with both agitated and 'frozen' children.
Hunt, John E. (1997) The cause, effect and spread of non-traditional satanism and occultism in America. Gary Stone Services, Savoy, TX.
Hunter, Edna J. (1991) “Prisoners of war: Readjustment and rehabilitation.” In Reuven Gal, A. and Mangelsdorff, David (eds.) Handbook of military psychology. pp. 741-757. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England.
NOTE: (from the chapter) (examines) common psychological residuals of captivity, regardless of war or time in history, which persist to impact the psychosocial adjustment of former (prisoners of war (POWs)) and their families while they adjust to freedom and struggle for family reintegration / changing treatment of POWs / initial reactions to being captured / separating physical and psychological effects / families are 'captives' also / the concept of 'brainwashing' / resistance to coercive persuasion--the concept of locus of control / commitment and codes of conduct / finding meaning in a meaningless situation / implications for treatment
Hunter, M. (ed.) (1995) Child survivors and perpetrators of sexual abuse: Treatment innovations. Sage Pub., Thousand Oaks, CA.
NOTE: The first chapter discusses the facilitation of emotional regulation and impulse control in children who have been sexually abused and provides clinicians with practical treatment recommendations. Another chapter describes the specialized treatment of adolescent survivors of abuse within the hospital setting and provides criteria for determining when inpatient treatment is appropriate. The final chapter in this section deals with ritual abuse, a controversial and emotionally charged topic. The most controversial topic within the field of sexual abuse is whether to define sexually aggressive children as victims or perpetrators. The definition chosen depends on the type of treatment provided. The chapters here present a cultural background for addressing this issue, a model for identifying sexually aggressive children, a treatment model for working with such youngsters that allow young offenders to assume responsibility for their emotions and behaviors without assuming the shame of a negative label, and a treatment model for working with the parents of these children.
Jenkins, P. (2001) Beyond tolerance: Child pornography on the Internet. NY Univ. Press, NY, NY.
Johnson, David W. and VanVonderen Jeff. (1991) The subtle power of spiritual abuse. Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, MN.
NOTE: The book focuses primarily on the abuse perpetrated in the name of Christianity by extremist Christian groups.
Kelley, Susan J, (1996) "Ritualistic abuse of children." In: Briere, John N; Berliner, Lucy, Bulkley, Josephine A, Jenny, Carole, and Reid, Theresa (ed.). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, 1st ed; Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications, pp. 90-99.
NOTE: Ritualistic abuse is currently one of the more controversial areas in the field of child maltreatment. Much debate occurs over its existence, prevalence, and the veracity of child victims' and adult survivors' accounts. This chapter focuses on definitional issues, the prevalence of reported cases of ritualistic abuse , and characteristics and impact of ritualistic abuse . Current controversies surrounding ritualistic abuse will also be explored. [Text, p. 90]
Keiser, Thomas W. and Keiser, Jacqueline L. (1987) The anatomy of illusion: Religious cults and destructive persuasion. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
Kent, Cheryl Carey. (1991) "Ritual abuse." In Ammerman, Robert T. and Hersen, Michel, (eds.) Case studies in family violence, pp. 187-207. Plenum Press, NY, NY.
SUMMARY: Describes three brief case studies (of ritual abuse in the area of family violence) These cases illustrate different problems that the clinician may encounter in understanding and treating cases in which allegations of ritual abuse are made The chosen cases represent a range of ages (preschool age, latency-adolescent, and adult), psychopathologies, and various systems' responses to allegations of ritual abuse. Discusses medical issues, legal issues, social and family issues, assessment of psychopathology, and treatment options.
Kluft, R. P. (1986) “Personality unification in multiple personality disorder: A follow up study.” In Braun, B. G. (ed.) Treatment of multiple personality disorder, pp 29-60. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
Kluft, Richard P. (1993). Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
Kluft, Richard P. (1994) “Counter transference in the treatment of multiple personality disorder.” In Wilson, J. P., and Lindy, J. D., (eds.) Countertransference in the treatment of PTSD, pp. 122-150. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Kluft, Richard P. ( 1997) "Overview of the treatment of patients alleging that they have suffered ritualized or sadistic abuse." In Fraser, George A (ed.). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. 1st ed; Am. Psych. Press, Washington, DC. pp. 31-63; ISBN: 0-88048-478-0
NOTE: The patient alleging ritualistic abuse poses an enormous clinical challenge. We can meet that challenge best by marshaling the cumulative wisdom of psychotherapeutic practice and relevant scientific findings and bringing them to bear with compassion and circumspection in these unusual and trying circumstances. [Text, p. 61]
Kottman, T. (1993) Play therapy in action: A casebook for practitioners. Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction -- Audrey, the bois d'arc and me: A time of becoming -- Family therapy for the family tyrant -- Gentleman Jim and his private war: Imagery interaction play therapy -- The king of rock and roll: An application of Adlerian play therapy -- To show and not tell: Cognitive-behavioral play therapy -- Born on my bum: Jungian play therapy -- Child, protector, confidant: Structured group ecosystemic play therapy -- From meek to bold: A case study of Gestalt play therapy -- Where in the world is... my father? A time-limited play therapy -- Internal and external wars: Psychodynamic play therapy -- Ann: Dynamic play therapy with ritual abuse -- Oh, but a heart, courage, and a brain: An integrative approach to play therapy -- As the child plays, so grows the family tree: Family play therapy -- Please hurt me again: Post-traumatic play therapy with an abused child -- It's all in the game: Game play therapy -- Two by two: A filial therapy case study -- I brought my own toys today Play therapy with adults.
NOTE: This book brings together in a single volume concrete applications of play therapy by seasoned clinicians from various theoretical perspectives. The goal is to reflect the broad spectrum of approaches that now exist in the field. The major psychopathologies in children present the therapist with different problems and therefore require different approaches. This casebook offers step-by-step treatment guidelines for a number of childhood difficulties, including internalizing, externalizing, and post-traumatic disorders. It should be of interest to both students and more advanced practitioners in a variety of mental health disciplines, including social work; psychiatry; clinical, counseling, and school psychology; expressive arts therapy; child-life therapy; and psychiatric nursing.
Langone, Michael D. and Blood, Linda O. (1990.) Satanism and occult-related violence: What you should know. American Family Foundation, Weston, MA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Events stimulating public concern -- Law enforcement findings -- Growing public awareness -- Reports from helping professionals -- Historical background -- Modern satanism -- Folk religions -- Prevalence -- Why do people get involved in satanism? -- Recruitment tactics -- Effects and signs of satanic involvement -- Teenagers forming cults -- How does satanic involvement affect people? -- What can families do? -- Educate yourself -- Communicate effectively -- Be patient and set a hierarchy of goals -- Exercise authority when appropriate -- Know when to seek professional help -- Suggestions for mental health professionals -- Working with deeply involved satanists -- Ritualistic abuse -- Adult survivors -- Legal issues -- Conclusions -- References -- Resource organizations.
NOTE: "This report's perspective is that of the mental health professional. Our goals are to review the existing literature pertinent to satanism and to offer suggestions to parents and helping professionals concerned about people, especially youth, involved in satanism. This report provides a balanced overview of the problems posed by the recent upsurge of satanism and occult-related violence in the United States."
Langone, Michael D and Nieburg, Herbert A, (1992) “Treatment of satanism.” in VandeCreek, Leon, Knapp, Samuel and Jackson, Thomas L (ed.) Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, vol. 11, pp. 187-201. Professional Resource Press, Sarasota, FL.
NOTE: What is the concern generated by satanism? Why has there been such an increase in inquiries? What can mental health professional do to respond to the growing concern? These questions are the focus of this contribution. [Adapted from Text, p. 187] A briefer version of this chapter appeared in Italian as "Aspetti psichiatrici del satanismo"Sette e Religioni 2: 50-79 (January-March 1992)
Langone, M. D. (l993) Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Helping cult victims: Historical background -- Section I: Mind control -- A little carrot and a lot of stick: A case example -- Reflections on brainwashing -- Understanding mind control: Exotic and mundane mental manipulations -- Section II: Leaving cults -- A personal account: Eastern meditation group -- A personal account: Bible-based group -- Post-cult problems: An exit counselor's perspective -- Exit counseling: A practical overview -- The importance of information in preparing for exit counseling: A case study -- Section III: Facilitating recovery -- Post-cult recovery: Assessment and rehabilitation -- Guidelines for therapists -- Guidelines for clergy -- Guidelines for psychiatric hospitalization of ex-cultists -- Guidelines for support groups -- Guidelines for families -- Guidelines for ex-members -- Section IV: Special issues -- Children and cults -- Ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers -- Teen satanism -- Legal considerations: Regaining independence and initiative -- Index.
SUMMARY: (from the jacket) This book is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of the cult experience. It draws on the clinical expertise of treatment professionals and the personal experiences of those formerly involved in high-intensity mind-control groups. The book examines the history of the cult phenomenon, the nature of mind control, the psychological literature on post-cult distress, why people leave cults, exit counseling and deprogramming, and how to facilitate recovery. (It) makes a strong case for the extreme damage that cults can do to members physically, as well as psychologically and spiritually. There are specific guidelines for different types of counseling: psychotherapy, pastoral counseling, psychiatric hospitalization, and suggestions for support groups, families and ex-members themselves.
Levine, Howard B., ed. (1990) Adult analysis and childhood sexual abuse. The Analytic Press, Hillsdale, NJ.
Lifton, Robert Jay. (1989, 1961) Thought reform and the psychology of totalism: A study of "brainwashing" in China. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.
Mangen, Richard. (1992) "Psychological testing and ritual abuse." In Sakheim, David K. and Devine, Susan (eds.) Out of darkness: Exploring satanism and ritual abuse,. pp. 147-173. Lexington Books/Macmillan, NY, NY.
SUMMARY: There is a lack of literature in the area of psychological testing of cult abuse victims. The purpose of this chapter is to begin to fill this gap and to address some of the issues involved in conceptualizing and undertaking psychological testing with victims of satanic cult abuse. Given that satanic cult abuse involves extensive psychological trauma leading to a variety of dissociative disorders--including MPD (multiple personality disorder), the small but growing body of literature relating to psychological test results of MPD and several other articles of significance, which is reviewed.
Marmer, Stephen S. (1997) "A credulous skeptic's approach to cults and multiple personality disorder."in Fraser, George A (ed.) The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists, 1st ed. pp. 3-16. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
NOTE: The author reports five anecdotes of patients who demonstrated at least four ways in which reports of satanic ritual cult abuse were dynamically important metaphors.
Matthew, Laurie. (2001) Who dares wins! Young Women's Centre Ltd, Scotland. See http://www.rans.org.uk/shop/shop.htm
NOTE: Intended as a basic information resource. Covers issues such as: feminism and ritual abuse, supporting survivors of ritual abuse, children and ritual abuse and a survivor’s perspective.
Matthew, Laurie. Where angels fear. Sequel to Who dares wins! Young Women's Centre Ltd, Scotland. See http://www.rans.org.uk/shop/shop.htm
Mayer, Robert. (1988) Through divided minds: Probing the mysteries of multiple personalities: A doctor's story. Doubleday: NY, NY.
Mayer, Robert. (1988) Through divided minds: Probing the mysteries of multiple personalities: A doctor's story. Doubleday, NY, NY.
Mayer, R. S. (1991) Satan's children: Case studies in multiple personality. G.P. Putnam, NY, NY. Also Avon Books, NY, NY.
NOTE: An analyst describes his treatment of several ritual abuse survivors. The material is graphic and the author maintains a skeptical outlook throughout the book.
McCann, I. Lisa and Colletti, Joseph John. (1994) “The dance of empathy: A hermeneutic formulation of countertransference, empathy, and understanding in the treatment of individuals who have experienced early childhood trauma.” in Wilson, John P. and Lindy, Jacob D. (eds.) Countertransference in the treatment of PTSD. pp. 87-121. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
NOTE: The first section of this chapter will explore and explain the importance of managing countertransference reactions with patients who report early childhood trauma. Next, we will present a hermeneutic formulation of the relationship between countertransference, empathy, and understanding in treating individuals who have experienced early childhood trauma and abuse. This formulation is embedded within a psychoanalytic perspective. Finally, clinical examples will be presented to clarify and explicate the hermeneutic formulation of the dance of empathy. [Text, p. 89]
Key Words: Adults - Child Abuse - Countertransference - Emotional Abuse - Incest - Ritual Abuse - Survivors
McKenna, Annie. Paperclip Dolls. See http://www.paperclipdolls.com
NOTE: Annie McKenna’s story about healing from being placed into a government program known to her as Project Monarch at birth by her father who was military intelligence. The book is her personal account as relayed through her journaling, supportive research, and other writings of exactly how her memories revealed themselves, their impact on her life, and how she was able to understand and gain control of her multiplicity.
Mead, J., and Balch, G. (1987) Child abuse and the church. HDL Publishing Co., Costa Mesa, CA.
Meerloo, Joost A. M. (1956) The rape of the mind: The psychology of thought control, menticide, and brainwashing. World Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK.
NOTE: This book attempts to depict the transformation of the free human mind into an automatically responding machine; a transformation which can be bought about by some of the cultural undercurrents in our present day society as well as by deliberate experiments in the service of a political ideology.
Michelson, Larry K. (1996) Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives. Plenum Press, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Part I, Foundations, entails historical, epidemiological, etiological, normative, and cross-cultural dimensions of dissociative phenomena, providing an empirical foundation for the remaining chapters. Part II, Developmental Perspectives, represents a newly emerging area that focuses on developmental aspects of dissociative processes, including the potential role of incest and attachment in the development of dissociative processes, as well as a description of dissociative disorders in childhood and adolescence. Part III, Theoretical Models, encompasses contemporary conceptual and research dimensions from a variety of perspectives. These contributions include psychobiological, information-processing models of dissociation, and the relation of dissociation to hypnotic phenomena, moving beyond earlier theoretical frameworks for elucidating the etiopathogenesis of dissociation. Part IV, entitled Assessment, comprises 3 interrelated chapters devoted to the diagnosis, psychological, and psychophysiological assessment of clients with dissociative disorders. Part V, Diagnostic Classifications, offers clinicians and researchers an overview of current nosology, differential diagnoses, as well as conceptual and clinical implications of the varied dissociative disorders. In Part VI, Therapeutic Interventions, eight chapters are presented that provide a wealth of information for clinicians treating clients with dissociative disorders, PTSD, and survivors of sexual abuse and/or assault. These chapters reflect leading clinical perspectives in the amelioration of dissociative disorders and related sequelae of abuse. In Part VII, the final section, Special Topics, 2 chapters address ritual abuse and ethical-legal issues in dissociative disorders that should be considered as important readings for clinicians working with dissociative disorder clients. [Text, pp. xii - xiii]
Miller, Alison. (2112) Healing the Unimaginable: Treating Ritual Abuse and Mind Control. Karnac Books, London, England.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface: E. Sue Blume - Foreword: Valerie Sinason - Introcution - A therapist’s first experience with ritual abuse and mind control (with thanks to "Lorraine", "Teresa", "Tony", and "Jennifer") - Ritual abuse and mind control: the definition evolves - The basics of therapy - Markers of mind control and ritual abuse - "Ritual" abuse: religious and creed-based abuses, with contributions by: Old Lady: "The special child’s spiritual training" Adriana Green: "The strangers’ house" - Military, political, and commercial uses of mind control, with contributions by: Trish Fotheringham: "Mind control as I experienced it" Jeannie Riseman: "A 1940s system of programming" - A reversed Kabbalah trainer speaks, contributed by Stella Katz - The programming: indoctrination, lies, and tricks - Understanding and working with alters’ jobs and hierarchies, with a contribution by: LisaBri: "When therapists make mistakes" - Dealing with programming: alternative strategies, with contributions by: Jeannie Riseman: "Programming: taking the wind out of its sails" Robin Morgan: "Dismantling my inner structures" - "Stabilization" takes on a new meaning - "Maybe I made it up," with contributions by: LisaBri: "Honesty and denial" Carol Rutz: "Validating my mind control memories" - Boundaries and bonds: the therapeutic relationship, with contributions by: Stella Katz: "For Miranda" LisaBri: "A survivor in therapy" - Treating programmed pedophilia (with thanks to "Jennifer") - The unimaginable - Working with the traumatic memories - Successful resolution: co-consciousness or integration, with contributions by: Jen Callow: Part 1: "To integrate or not to integrate" Jen Callow: Part 2: "Building inner community" Stella Katz: "Reclaiming me" - Ritual abuse and mind control treatment: greater than the sum of its parts - Appendices: 1. Resources (books and websites) 2: Satanic calendar
NOTE: Review from Goodreads "Although Dr. Miller’s book was written as a manual for therapists who are helping ritual abuse and mind control survivors to heal effectively, I/we (survivor(s) of ritual abuse/torture, mind control, rape/torture and incest) have also read the book and find it to be an invaluable resource. Before reading the manual, we sought our therapist’s advice about which chapters to read and also checked regularly with our insiders before reading the book further. Dr. Miller truly appreciates her clients’ (and their insiders’) need to be heard in a respectful way so that the therapist may be able to understand and work with the client’s system in a manner that is most beneficial for the client’s healing. Hence, Dr. Miller not only shares her knowledge, insight, wisdom, experience and expertise that she has gained from listening/working with survivors, but she has sought out some survivors to share pertinent information about their specific systems, ritual abuse and mind control experiences and their advice for therapists. Consequently, Dr. Miller and these survivors, through their words, encouraged me/my insiders to do what was forbidden, to think for ourselves, and begin to really understand how the perpetrators used lies, tricks, theatrics and/or torture to try and control us so that we may become as evil/sick as them or become self-destructive via their programming tactics. The perpetrators did not and will not succeed though because now we know that we are not alone. Furthermore, this book disempowers the perpetrators and exposes them for who they really are. Dr. Miller’s book is not only helping us to heal well, it is empowering us to help other survivors heal and thrive as worthy human beings."
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Morgan, R. (1989) The demon lover: On the sexuality of terrorism. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
Moriarty, Anthony. (1992) The psychology of adolescent satanism: A guide for parents, counselors, clergy, and teachers. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood, Westport, CT.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: The problem -- Personality types of adolescents involved in satanism -- The psychopathic delinquent -- The angry misfit -- The pseudo-intellectual -- The suicidal impulsive -- Risk factors associated with satanism -- Cultural factors -- Physical factors -- Psychological factors -- Social factors -- The satanic Bible -- Satanism as a source of power -- The Satan-God duality -- Rites of passage -- Parent styles: The beginning -- Communicating effectively -- Satanism and suicide
SUMMARY: This book addresses the problems of adolescent Satanism from a psychological viewpoint. It includes the developmental dynamics that underlie four different types of young people who become involved in Satanism and provides an analysis of risk factors. The author critically evaluates the philosophy of satanism through a review of The satanic Bible, and further appraises the causes of satanism by examining the roles of power, ritual, and dualistic thinking in young people's lives. In addition, Moriarty evaluates how communication patterns and parenting styles impact on a young person's vulnerability to become involved in satanism. This is also the first book to describe the relationship between satanism and suicide. Finally, it closes with ten practical suggestions for parents and others that will lead to effective prevention. This volume is intended for a wide audience, including parents, teachers, clergy, counselors, and other mental health professionals, and is a valuable resource for law enforcement personnel.
Morris David B. (1991) The culture of pain. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Napier, Nancy J. Getting through the day: Strategies for adults hurt as children. Sidran Foundation Press, Baltimore, MD. http://www.sidran.org/http://www.sidran.org/
NOTE: In straightforward language, the author discusses the continuum of dissociation and explains the difference between ordinary mood shifts and trauma-induced dissociation. Chapters are devoted to the therapeutic value of dissociation, triggers, mindfulness, "inner child" parts, shame, your "future" self, and your relationships with family, friends, and therapist.
Noblitt, J. R. and Perskin, Pamela. (1995) Cult and ritual abuse: Its history, anthropology, and recent discovery in contemporary America. Praeger Publishing, Westport, CT.
Noblitt, Randall, and Perskin, Pamela. (1995) Cult and ritual abuse: Its history, anthropology, and recent discovery in contemporary America. Praeger Publishing, Westport, CT.
SUMMARY: This book reviews both the published and unpublished accounts of ritual abuse and the commentaries on this subject and also describes one therapist's personal experience in evaluating and treating individuals who claim to have been ritually abused. In examining the historical and anthropological background of such practices, accounts of religions, cults, and fraternal organizations were found to have used traumatic rituals to create altered states of consciousness. Apparently, such mental states have sometimes been viewed as sacred, i.e., as the magical catalyst for profound visions or possession by gods. In other cases, these techniques have allegedly been used to establish psychological control, which has existed largely in secrecy, essentially unknown in the mental health professions. Based on patient accounts, however, these traumatic acts of mind control occur in modern, civilized societies, including contemporary America. The stories told by patients include descriptions of abuse in sadistic ceremonies, some of which are allegedly associated with satanic, luciferian, and other ideologies alien to mainstream values. The psychiatric symptoms displayed by these individuals are similar to those described as "possessed" in various other cultures. The authors conclude that the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, or as it has been renamed, dissociative identity disorder, is a Western version of what has been known historically and anthropologically as possession. The authors discuss the controversy over the validity of ritual abuse claims by the patients of mental health professionals and the willingness of some therapists to believe these claims. The controversy is fed by the politics of psychotherapy, a generally unsympathetic and sometimes hostile media bias, and a growing contingent of individuals who argue that current allegations of child abuse are overstated. Appendixes contain a proposed diagnosis for cult and ritual trauma disorder and a profile of the Society for the Investigation, Treatment, and Prevention of Ritual and Cult Abuse.
O'Hagan, K. (1993) Emotional and psychological abuse of children. Univ. of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Court out -- Knowing or feeling -- Definitions of emotional and psychological abuse -- Emotional development--emotional abuse -- Psychological development--psychological abuse -- Global, cultural and historical contexts -- Emotional and psychological abuse within the modern child care system -- Organized ritual abuse -- Case histories -- Parents -- Single teenage mothers: The social, economic, and cultural constructs -- Parents with mental health problems -- Parents of children failing to thrive -- Observation, communication and assessment -- The emotional and psychological abuse of Michelle -- Implications for management and training.
NOTE: This book aims to enable practitioners to articulate precisely what is meant by the terms 'emotional' and 'psychological' abuse; to be able to identify it, and to formulate effective strategies for dealing with it. The author identifies certain categories of parent and parental circumstances which are conducive to the emotional and psychological abuse of children. He makes clear however, that parents are not the only care-givers who abuse children in this way. He explores such abuse within a historical, global and cultural context, and examines recent inquiry reports which have exposed the emotional and psychological abuse of children within the child care and child protection systems. Numerous case histories are provided, and one is explored in detail within the context of new child care legislation.
Oksana, Chrystine. (1994) Safe passage to healing: A guide for survivors of ritual abuse. Harper Perennial, NY. NY.
NOTE: In the format of The Courage to Heal. This book helps demystifies ritual abuse cults and methods and offers groundbreaking healing strategies. Standard guide for anyone treating survivors of ritual abuse. Highly recommended.
Olsen, Sarah E. Becoming one: A story of triumph over MPD. Trilogy Books, 50 S Delacey Ave, #201, Pasadena, CA 91105.
Palermo, George B. and Del Re, Michele C. (1999) Satanism: Psychiatric and legal views. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
Patterson, Earl S. (1987) Satanism: The group and the loss of self. Fatick Press, Meriden, CT.
Prendergast, William E The merry-go-round of sexual abuse: Identifying and treating survivors. Haworth Press, NY, NY. 1993
NOTE: Topics treated in this book include distinguishing characteristics of survivors of rape, incest, and ritual abuse, how survivors deal with sexual trauma, "imprinting" as a result of early seduction/molestation, behavioral effects of sexual trauma, and various aspects of survivor treatment. Each chapter has vignettes from the author's experiences of working with survivors since 1961.
Putnam, F. W. (1986). “Treatment of multiple personality: State of the art.” In Braun, B. G. (ed.) Treatment of multiple personality disorder, pp 175-198. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
Putnam, Frank W. (1989) Diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Reed, Robert D. and Kaus, Danek S. (1992) Ritual child abuse: How and where to find facts and get help. R&E Publishers, Saratoga, CA.
Reid, Greg (1995). Orphans in the storm: Male survivors of sexual and ritual abuse. Youthfire Publications, El Paso, TX and The American Focus on Satanic Crime Vol. 27. American Focus Publishers, Edison, NJ.
NOTE: Part One contains facts helpful to professionals and Part Two addresses personal issues molested boys, teens and men face on the road to healing
Reviere, Susan L. (1997) Memory and childhood trauma: A clinician's guide to the literature. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Reynolds, M. (1991) The reality: The truths about satanic/ritualistic abuse and multiple personality disorder. Privately printed, P.O. Box 68l83, Portland OR 97268.
NOTE: An excellent introduction to the recognition of satanic abuse, with a glossary, lists of phobias and holidays, etc., and a first-person account of several rituals.
Richards, Roberta and Rachel 2. (1993) The devil next door. Sunflower Ink, Carmel, CA.
NOTE: Case studies of ritual abuse victims and multiple personalities.
Rivera, Margo. (1996) More alike than different: Treating severely dissociative trauma survivors. Univ. of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.
Rogers, Alexandra (1994). For survival's sake workbook. The Rogers Co., P.O. Box 1102, Lewiston, NY 14092.
NOTE: Therapy workbook for survivors of ritualistic, religious and organizational abuse, with segments for multiples.
Rose, Emilie P. (1996) Reaching for the light: A guide for ritual abuse survivors and their therapists. Pilgrim Press, Cleveland, OH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:: Foreword (Renee Frederickson): Preface: Introduction: Prelude: Davida Angelica roared: The basics: What is ritual abuse?: Building networks: Interlude I: Michelle's story: Kid management: Interlude II: Adam's story: Reprogramming: overcoming Mind control: Loss and grief: Interlude III: Living the questions: Facing Evil: Interlude IV: Baby angels: reclaiming ritual as an agent of healing: Interlude V: from a child survivor of ritual abuse: Healing our spiritual selves: Interlude VI: Love in real: Long-term healing: For therapists and helpers: Postlude: Courageous hope: Definitions: Guided imagery for creating a safe place: Notes: The survivor's glossary of medical terms.
Ross, Colin A. (1989) Multiple personality disorder: Diagnosis, clinical features, and treatment. John Wiley, NY, NY.
NOTE: Places MPD in the spectrum of dissociative disorders. The material on treatment is respectful and contains many useful ideas.
Ross, Colin A. (1995) Satanic ritual abuse: Principles of treatment. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, NY.
NOTE: Describes a treatment method for satanic ritual abuse survivors with multiple personality disorder (MPD) in which the interventions can be used regardless of what percentage of the memories are real. Provides guidelines for how to recognize and treat such cases. Contemporary satanic ritual abuse in a context of Judaeo-Christian culture and is rooted in themes of dissociation, dualism, and projection.
Ross, Colin A. (1997) Dissociative identity disorder: Diagnosis, clinical features, and treatment of multiple personality, 2nd ed. Wiley, NY, NY.
Ross, Colin A. (2000) A. Bluebird: deliberate creation of multiple personality by psychiatrists. Manitou Communications, Richardson, TX.
SUMMARY: BLUEBIRD was a CIA mind control program that ran from 1951 to 1953. Using the medical school library, out-of-print books, and requests filed through the Freedom of Information Act, Ross documents that the CIA and military intelligence agencies have been creating multiple personality experimentally, and using these subjects in courier and infiltration operations. Includes material on remote transmitters and drug experiments on children, A complete listing of MKULTRA Subprojects, correspondence between Estabrooks and J. Edgar Hoover, and other documents is included in the Appendices. Afterword by Margaret Singer.
Rossman, B.B. and Rosenberg, Mindy S. (eds.) (1998) Multiple victimization of children: Conceptual, developmental, research, and treatment issues. Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press, Binghamton, NY.
Rothschild, Babette. (2000) The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. W.W.Norton, NY, NY.
Rothschild, Babette. (2003) The body remembers casebook: Unifying methods and models in the treatment of trauma and PTSD. W.W.Norton, NY, NY.
NOTE: Advocates tailoring therapy to individual cases and demonstrates the use of psychodynamic, cognitive, EMDR, SIBAM and other therapies in trauma treatment.
Ryder, D. (1992) Breaking the circle of ritual satanic abuse: Recognizing and recovering from the hidden trauma. CompCare Publishers, Minneapolis, MN.
NOTE A book on healing from ritual satanic abuse that combines current therapeutic approaches to post trauma states with the 12-step philosophy of Survivors of Incest Anonymous.
Sachs, Roberta G. (1986). “The adjunctive role of support systems in the treatment of multiple personality disorder.” In Braun, B. G. (ed.), Treatment of multiple personality disorder, pp 175-198. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
Sachs, Roberta G. (1993) "Use of sand trays in the beginning treatment of a patient with dissociative disorder." In Kluft, Richard P and Fine, Catherine G (ed.). Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder Am. Psyc. Press, Washington DC, pp. 301-310.
NOTE: Investigators and clinicians working with normal subjects and dissociative disorder patients have been exploring a variety of techniques for bringing previously inaccessible memories back to conscious awareness. The purpose of my discussion here is to illustrate the clinical use of sand trays for uncovering dissociated material. First, I offer a brief historical review of the sand tray techniques. Second, I illustrate the use of sand trays with materials from the treatment of a patient with dissociative disorder, supplemented by the patient's retrospective verbal reports about her state of mind during the time of her experiences with the sand tray technique. [Text, p. 302]
KEY WORDS: Adults - Case Report - Dissociative Identity Disorder - European Americans - Females - Play Therapy - Ritual Abuse - Survivors
Sachs, Roberta G. and Peterson, Judith (1994). Processing memories retrieved by trauma victims and survivors: A primer for therapists. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute, 1310 Clinic Drive, Tyler, TX 75701.
St. Clair, Moriah S.(1998) Abused beyond words: The healing journey of reclaiming our inner power and peace by speaking the unspeakable truth. Pathways United Publications, Corte Madera, CA.
Sakheim, David and Devine, Susan (eds.) (1992) Out of darkness: Exploring satanism and ritual abuse. Lexington Books, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: The history of satanic religions, satanic beliefs and practices: Alternative hypotheses regarding claims of satanic cult activity: A critical analysis: Child forensic evaluation and claims of ritual abuse or satanic activity: A law-enforcement perspective on allegations of ritual abuse: Psychological testing: The experience of five families: constructivist self-development theory: A theoretical model of psychological adaptation to severe trauma: Diagnosis and treatment of ritually abused children: Recognition and treatment of survivors reporting ritual abuse: Bound by the boundaries: Therapy issues in work with individuals exposed to severe trauma.
SUMMARY: This book is a balanced presentation of the phenomena of patients reporting Satanic Ritual Abuse as can be seen by the chapter titles listed above. The descriptions of satanic symbols and rituals are purposely vague and general so there won't be accusations of planting memories or contamination. Furthermore, therapists are cautioned about the use of leading questions. The book is intended as a guide for therapists who encounter clients reporting ritual abuse. It also provides an interesting historical account and evolution of satanism, and compares ritual abuse to other forms of documented mind control.
Sakheim, David K. (1996) “Clinical aspects of sadistic ritual abuse.” in Michelson, Larry K. and Ray, William J. (ed.) Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives. pp. 569-594. Plenum, NY, NY.
NOTE: In this chapter, Sakheim begins by defining ritual abuse and discussing modifiers such as "satanism" that have been applied to its description. Calling for more research, he begins by describing reports from a variety of sources related to ritual abuse . He then moves to a metacognition level and examines 4 of the ways in which people have related to these reports. By utilizing 4 approaches previously suggested by Greaves, general reactions can be characterized as coming from (1) Nihilists, (2) Apologists, (3) Heuristics, and (4) Methodologists. Unfortunately, Sakheim points out, there are no Methodologists since there are so few hard data at this time. However, the mere description of ritual abuse brings forth many complex and difficult questions for treating such abuse victims. This chapter emphasizes that these occur on both the level of the patient, whose information one must process in therapy, and on the level of the therapist, who must consider his or her own personal reactions to hearing stories of ritual abuse. [Introduction, p. 567]
Saliba, John A. 1987 Psychiatry and the cults: An annotated bibliography. Garland Publishing, NY, NY.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Sources for the study of psychiatry and the cults -- Psychiatry and the cults in historical perspective -- Religion, psychology, and psychiatry -- General studies on cults and sects -- Studies on particular cults and sects -- Psychiatry and the cults in cross-cultural perspective -- Theoretical studies on, and specific examples of, folk psychiatry -- Studies on shamanism and related phenomena -- Current psychological and psychiatric studies on the new cults -- Meditation and yoga -- Pentecostal and charismatic groups -- Studies on, and related to, the brainwashing versus conversion controversy
SUMMARY: (from the preface) Apart from Chapter One, which lists the sources used in compiling this bibliography, three major chapters covering the historical, cross-cultural, and contemporary dimensions, comprise the bulk of cited works. Chapter Two annotates those works on the cults and related topics before 1973, when the current controversy arose. Chapter Three deals with cults or new religious movements in non-Western societies. Chapter Four deals with contemporary writings and takes into account those essays and books published since 1973.
Salter, A. C. (1988) Treating child sex offenders and victims: A practical guide. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.
Samways, Louise. (1994) Dangerous persuaders: An expose of personal development.courses and cults, and how they operate in Australia. Penguin Books, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia.
Sandberg, D., Lynn, S. J. and Green, J. P. (1994)."Sexual abuse and re-victimization: Mastery, dysfunctional learning and dissociation." In Lynn, S. J. and Rhue, J. W. (eds.), Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives, pp. 242-267. The Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Sanders, T. L. (1991) Male survivors: 12-step recovery program for survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The Crossing Press, Freedom, CA.
NOTE: Spiritually oriented workbook for male survivors.
Sanford, D. (1990) Don't make me go back, Mommy: A child's book about satanic ritual abuse. Multnomah Press, Portland, OR.
NOTE: Children’s book written for five to eight year olds. A little girl discloses about ritual abuse in day care and is believed and helped by her parents and therapist. Popular with adults with inner children.
Sanford, Linda T. (1990) Strong at the broken places: Overcoming the trauma of childhood abuse. Random House and Avon, NY, NY.
Schwartz, Harvey L. (2000) Dialogues with forgotten voices: Relational perspectives on child abuse trauma and the treatment of severe dissociative disorders. Basic Books, NY, NY.
NOTE: A complex and technical treatment of the dynamics of victims of extreme childhood abuse, perpetrators, and helping professionals. Contains many references to ritual abuse throughout the book.
Scott, Sara. (2001) Politics and experience of ritual abuse: Beyond disbelief. Open University, Buckingham, England and Philadelphia, PA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - Child sexual abuse - the shaping of a social problem - Unreliable witnesses - memories and moral panic - The nature of the beast - pornography, prostitution and everyday life - The flesh and the word - beliefs and believing in ritual abuse - The Gender of horror - Making death meaningful - Composing the self - Conclusion - Appendix - Bibliography
NOTE: A sociological study of and case studies British ritual abuse survivors, supplemented with data from American survivors. Focuses on why ritual abuse has aroused such controversy. Feminist view point.
Scully, D. (1990) Understanding sexual violence: A study of convicted rapists. Unwin Hyman, London, England.
Sinason, V. (1994) Treating survivors of satanic abuse. Routledge, London, England and NY, NY.
NOTE: Thirty-four chapters by different authors covering a wide variety of subjects. Consistently respectful and humane, excellent bibliographies.
Smith, Margaret. (1993) Ritual abuse: What it is, why it happens, how to help. HarperSanFrancisco, San Francisco, CA
NOTE: A general introduction to RA and healing, written by a survivor/multiple, with a chapter on getting out if you are currently cult-involved.
Smith, Margaret. (1993) It's love and unity I want: A healing guide for ritual abuse survivors and the people who support them. Privately printed: Reaching Out, 1296 E. Gibson Road, #128, Woodland CA 95776.
Snowden, Kathy K. Satanic cult ritual abuse. Richmond Psychotherapy Associates, Richmond.
Speigel, D (1986). "Dissociation, double binds and post traumatic stress in multiple personality disorder." In Braun, B. G. (ed.), Treatment of multiple personality disorder, pp.61-78. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC.
Stoller, R.J. (1975) Perversion: The erotic form of hatred. Pantheon Books, NY, NY and (1986) American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC.
Stover, E. and Nightingale, E. (1985) The breaking of bodies and minds: Torture, psychiatric abuse, and the health professions. Freeman and Co., NY, NY
Sullivan, Kathleen. Lessons we have jearned: A survival guide. PARC-VRAMC, 5251 Hwy. 153, #223, Hixson, TN 37343-4910.
NOTE: This book is a compilation of advice shared by nine recovering adult governmental mind-control survivors, most of whom are also recovering from ritual abuse. Contains a resource section.
Suedfeld, P. (1990) Psychology and torture. Hemisphere, NY. NY.
Swartz, R. (1995). Internal family systems therapy. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Taylor, Brice. Revivification: A gentle, alternative memory retrieval process for trauma survivors. Available from Brice Taylor Trust, P.O. Box 655, Landrum, SC 29356.
Terr, L. (1994). Unchained memories: True stories of traumatic memories, lost and found. Basic Books, NY, NY.
Thomas, T. (1989). Men surviving incest: A male survivor shares the process of recovery. Launch Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
NOTE: Addresses isolation, stigmatization, fear, and conflict as experienced by male survivors. Based on a 12-step model.
Tobias and Lalich (1994). Captive hearts, captive minds: Freedom and recovery from cults and abusive relationships. Hunter House, Alameda, CA.
Torem M. S. (1986) "Eating disorders in patients with MPD." In Kluft, R. P. (ed.), Clinical perspectives on multiple personality disorder, pp. 343-353. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC.
Van der Hart, Onno, Boon, Suzette, and Jansen, Olga Heijtmajer. (1997) "Ritual abuse in European countries: A clinician's perspective." In Fraser, George A (ed.). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. 1st ed; Washington: Am. Psych. Press, pp. 137-163. ISBN: 0-88048-478-0
NOTE: In this chapter, we present an overview of relevant material pertaining to Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA) cases involving children in both Great Britain and the Netherlands, diagnostic issues regarding SRA in children and adult DID patients in the Netherlands, treatment issues, and issues related to the credibility of SRA accounts. [Text, p. 139]
van der Kolk, Bessel A. (1987). Psychological trauma. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC.
van der Kolk, Bessel A. (1994) The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard Medical School Press, Cambridge, MA.
van der Kolk, Bessel A., McFarlane, Alexander and Weisaeth, Lars, eds. (1997) Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Waites, Elizabeth A. (1993) "Ritualization and abuse." In Trauma and survival: Post-traumatic and dissociative disorders in women. pp. 202-210. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
NOTE: This chapter provides a background for understanding ritual abuse: its origins, appeal, effects and treatment.
Waites, Elizabeth A. (1993) Trauma and survival: Post-traumatic and dissociative disorders in women. W.W. Norton, NY, NY.
Walsh, Barent W. and Rosen, Paul M. (1988) Self-mutilation: theory, research, and treatment. The Guilford Press, NY, NY.
NOTE: A study of self-mutilation in various populations that stresses that self-mutilation is not a suicide equivalent.
Waterman, Jill, Kelly, Robert J. Oliveri, Mary Kay, abd McCord, Jane.Behind the playground walls: Sexual abuse in preschools. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
NOTE: (from the jacket) Representing over six years of research with children reporting nonritualistic and ritualistic sexual abuse in preschool settings, this book examines the effects of reported molestation on young children and their families. Based on data gathered from the children, parents, and therapists in a comparison study, the book covers the effects on children's behavior, fears, PTSD symptoms, sexuality, achievement, school performance, and self-concept. The ways in which the children and their families coped with reports of abuse and the factors associated with positive short- and long-term outcome are detailed. Part I of the book outlines the scope of the problem. Cases from two communities -- alleged ritualistic abuse in several preschools in Manhattan Beach, California, and nonritualistic abuse in a preschool day care setting in Reno, Nevada -- are described and compared with a control group of nonabused children from southern California. The background literature is reviewed, as are the methods, procedures, and limitations of the study. Chapters in Part II offer perspectives on what happened to the children and the patterns of disclosure in therapy. Part III concentrates on the aftermath of such cases, with separate chapters on the children's overall levels of distress and cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, sexual, and school-related effects. The impact of sexual abuse on the children's parents, families, and therapists is discussed in Part IV. Factors that were associated with positive outcome for the children, both in the short term and at follow-up 5 years after initial disclosure, are then covered in Part V. Part VI presents community and research perspectives on the findings by well-known child abuse experts, and concludes with the authors' recommendations for treatment.
Watson P. (1978) War on the mind: The military uses and abuses of psychology. (1980) Penguin, NY, NY, (1978) Basic Books, NY, NY, (1978) Hutchinson, London, England, and (1981) Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England.
Whitfield, Charles L. (1995) Memory and abuse: Remembering and healing the effects of trauma. Health Communications, Deerfield Beach, FL.
NOTE: The "false memory" debate is covered in detail, with extensive documentation regarding FMSF. Dr. Whitfield presents extensive well-documented information on traumatic memory by researchers over the past 100 years.
Williams, M. B. (1994). "Establishing safety in survivors of severe sexual abuse." In Williams, M. B., and Sommer, J. F. (eds.), Handbook of post-traumatic therapy, pp. 162-178. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.
Williams, Mary Beth and Soili Poijula (2002) The PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications, Oakland, CA.
Wilson, J. P. and Raphael, B. (eds.) (1993). International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. Plenum Press, NY, NY.
Wilson, J. P., and Lindy, J. D. (ed.) (1994). Countertransference in the treatment of PTSD. Guilford Press, NY, NY.
Wilson, J. P., (1994). “The need for an integrative theory of post-traumatic stress disorder.” In Williams, M. B., and Sommer, J. F. (eds.) Handbook of post traumatic therapy, pp. 3-18. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.
Woodsum, Gayle M. (1998) The ultimate challenge: A revolutionary, sane and sensible response to ritualistic and cult-related abuse. Action Resources International, Laramie, WY.
Young, Walter C. (1992) "Recognition and treatment of survivors reporting ritual abuse." pp. 249-278. In Sakheim, David K. and Devine, Susan, (eds.) Out of darkness: Exploring satanism and ritual abuse. Lexington Books/Macmillan, NY, NY.
NOTE: Addresses ritual abuse from the standpoint of those patients who report ongoing abuse since early childhood at the hands of satanic cults, not only in formalized ceremonies but also on a day-to-day basis within the family. Outlines the presentation and recognition of patients who report ritual abuse and examines the complex treatment issues involved in their rehabilitation.
Young, Walter C. and Young, Linda J. (1997) "Recognition and special treatment issues in patients reporting childhood sadistic ritual abuse." In Fraser, George A (ed.). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. 1st ed; Washington: Am. Psych. Press, pp. 65-103. ISBN: 0-88048-478-0
NOTE: The purpose of this chapter is to review reports of the Sadistic Ritual Abuse (SRA) phenomenon, to discuss credibility of the accounts, and to describe current issues in its treatment, including preparation for treatment, general treatment issues, management of cultic or satanic alters, pharmacological treatment, and controversy over historical accuracy. Controversial trends in the etiology and treatment of SRA cases are also discussed. It should be kept in mind that the controversy surrounding SRA continues to heighten. Actual clinical interpretations may be considerably different if scientific data should support patients' accounts or, from an opposing viewpoint, if a socially contagious, media-influenced syndrome is shown to run its course among dissociative, suggestible individuals. [Text, p. 68]